Aeronautical Engineering

Aeronautical Engineering

Aeronautical Engineering Course Details

Aeronautical Engineering is the study that involves researching, designing, developing, constructing, maintenance of the aircrafts and spacecrafts within Earth's atmosphere. It also covers the investigation into aerodynamic elements of aircraft, including behaviours and related factors such as control surfaces, lift, airfoil, and drag.

Aeronautical is one of the branch of aerospace engineering. Aerospace engineers are accountable for researching, designing and production of aircraft and spacecraft launching of satellite launch vehicle, defense missiles and satellites for different applications within and outside the atmosphere.

Aeronautical Engineering Course Summary

Topics Specializations
Full Form Aeronautical Engineering
Streams B.Tech/B.E Aeronautical Engineering
Course Type Degree
Course Duration 4 Years
Examination Type Semester wise
Eligibility XII (PCM/PCB), 3 Years Engineering Diploma
Admission Process AME CET
Course Fees 5 to 10 lakhs total course fees
Average Salary Starting Salary: 6 to 10 Lacs per annum
Top Recruiting Companies Boeing, Airbus, Lockhead Martin, NASA, ISRO, DRDO, Bombardier, etc.
Top Job Profile
  • Aircraft Design Engineer
  • Avionics Engineer
  • Manufacturing Engineer
  • Testing Engineer
  • Quality Control Engineer
  • etc

B Tech / BE Aeronautical Engineering Course

Aeronautical Engineering Course of 4 years, there are 8 semesters in which students will get theoretical and practical knowledge. It is one of the best undergraduate programs in the field of aviation and has higher career opportunities. Aeronautical Engineering is one of the most dedicated branches of aerospace engineering that includes the atmosphere. In this course, the candidate will study about design, development, and research of an aircraft. Aircraft is the most modern technology-based flying device, in this, we can find all the latest technologies. So in this course candidate has to learn all types of technology and do lots of research. The main job of an aeronautical engineer is to do research and make aircraft more lightweight and safe for the passengers.

The drone is the latest flying device and is going to most popular and common use. In the Aeronautical Engineering course candidate has to learn about drone technologies.

Students usually study topics like Aerospace Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Aircraft Structures, Thermodynamics, Fluid Dynamics and Mechanics, Flight Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Aircraft Design, Avionics Navigation, and many more in aeronautical engineering.

After completing the Aeronautical Engineering course a candidate will be ready to work in any industry work on aircraft, missile, spacecraft, drone etc.

B Tech / BE Aeronautical Engineering Subjects

B Tech / BE Aeronautical Engineering course duration includes 8 semesters, One semester out of the eight have practical training in the live environment and other semesters have academic sessions. In each academic session, there are approximately 6-7 subjects in each semester which a student has to qualify to attain the B. Tech (Aeronautical Engineering) Degree.

The few core Aeronautical Engineering subjects are given below to provide the student with an idea of what they have to study after joining the course:-

Semester 1:

  1. Engineering Mathematics I
  2. The syllabus for Engineering Mathematics I in a Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) program can vary based on the university or institution. However, I can provide a general outline based on common topics covered in most engineering curricula:

    1. Differential Calculus

    • Functions, Limits, Continuity, and Differentiability.
    • Mean value theorems: Rolle's Theorem, Lagrange's Mean Value Theorem.
    • Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s series.
    • Successive differentiation and Leibnitz's theorem.
    • Partial differentiation and its applications.

    2. Integral Calculus

    • Indefinite and definite integrals.
    • Techniques of integration: substitution, partial fractions, integration by parts.
    • Application of integrals: Area under curves, volume of solids of revolution.

    3. Vector Calculus

    • Scalars and vectors, vector algebra.
    • Gradient, divergence, and curl.
    • Vector identities.
    • Line, surface, and volume integrals.
    • Stokes, Gauss, and Green's theorems and their applications.

    4. Differential Equations

    • Order and degree of a differential equation.
    • First-order differential equations: separable, exact, linear, and Bernoulli.
    • Higher-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients.
    • Applications: Electrical circuits, oscillatory motion.

    5. Matrices

    • Types of matrices, operations on matrices.
    • Determinants and their properties.
    • Inverse of a matrix.
    • Solutions of systems of linear equations: Cramer’s rule, matrix inversion method.
    • Eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

    6. Series Solutions of Differential Equations and Special Functions

    • Series solutions of ordinary differential equations.
    • Bessel’s and Legendre’s differential equations.
    • Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials.

    7. Laplace Transforms

    • Definition and properties.
    • Inverse Laplace transform.
    • Application to solve ordinary differential equations.

    8. Fourier Series

    • Periodic functions, trigonometric series.
    • Fourier series expansion of periodic functions.
    • Half-range expansions.
  3. Engineering Physics
  4. 1. Mechanics

    • Newton's Laws of Motion
    • Work, Energy, and Power
    • Rotational Dynamics
    • Gravitation and Satellite Motion
    • Elasticity

    2. Waves and Oscillations

    • Simple Harmonic Motion
    • Damped Oscillations
    • Forced Oscillations and Resonance
    • Wave Motion and Wave Equation
    • Superposition of Waves and Standing Waves

    3. Optics

    • Reflection and Refraction at Plane and Curved Surfaces
    • Dispersion and Spectra
    • Wavefront and Huygens' Principle
    • Interference, Diffraction, and Polarization

    4. Thermal Physics

    • Zeroth, First, and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
    • Heat Engines and Refrigerators
    • Kinetic Theory of Gases
    • Blackbody Radiation

    5. Electricity and Magnetism

    • Coulomb's Law
    • Electric Field and Electric Potential
    • Gauss's Law
    • Capacitors and Dielectrics
    • Current and Resistance
    • Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces
    • Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday's Law

    6. Modern Physics

    • Photoelectric Effect
    • Bohr's Atomic Model
    • Quantum Mechanics: Wave-Particle Duality, Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
    • Nuclear Physics: Radioactivity, Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    • Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices

    7. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure

    • Schrödinger's Equation
    • Quantum States and Operators
    • Quantum Mechanics of Hydrogen Atom
    • Spin and Pauli's Exclusion Principle

    8. Solid State Physics

    • Crystallography and Crystal Structures
    • Band Theory of Solids
    • Electrical Properties of Materials
    • Magnetic Properties of Materials
    • Superconductivity

    9. Relativity

    • Special Theory of Relativity
    • Lorentz Transformations
    • Relativistic Energy and Momentum

    10. Nanophysics and Nanotechnology

    • Basics of Nanotechnology
    • Nanomaterials and Their Properties
    • Applications of Nanotechnology
  5. Engineering Chemistry
  6. 1. Water Technology

    • Hardness of water and its determination
    • Methods of water softening: Lime-Soda process, Ion-exchange process
    • Boiler feed water and its treatment
    • Corrosion and its prevention

    2. Electrochemistry

    • Electrode potentials and electrochemical series
    • Nernst equation and its applications
    • Batteries: Primary, secondary, and fuel cells
    • Corrosion: Mechanisms and prevention techniques

    3. Polymers

    • Classification of polymers
    • Types of polymerization: Addition, condensation
    • Plastics, fibers, and elastomers
    • Biodegradable polymers and their significance

    4. Surface Chemistry

    • Adsorption: Physisorption, chemisorption, and their characteristics
    • Catalysts: Homogeneous and heterogeneous
    • Colloids: Types, properties, and applications

    5. Fuels and Combustion

    • Classification of fuels
    • Analysis of coal and calorific values
    • Combustion and its applications in engineering
    • Biodiesel and its significance

    6. Phase Rule

    • Definition and basic concepts
    • One component system: Water system
    • Two component systems: Pb-Ag, Fe-C systems

    7. Instrumental Methods of Analysis

    • Spectroscopy: UV-Vis, IR, NMR
    • Chromatography: Principles and applications
    • Electroanalytical techniques: Potentiometry, conductometry

    8. Chemical Kinetics

    • Rate of reaction and factors affecting it
    • Order and molecularity of reactions
    • Activation energy and Arrhenius equation

    9. Environmental Chemistry

    • Environmental pollution: Air, water, and soil pollution
    • Green chemistry and its principles
    • Role of chemistry in sustainable development

    10. Advanced Materials

    • Nanomaterials: Synthesis and applications
    • Smart materials and their role in engineering applications
    • Composites: Types and applications

    11. Organic Chemistry and its Applications

    • Basics of organic reactions and mechanisms
    • Industrial applications of organic compounds: Dyes, drugs, etc.
    • Lubricants and their significance
  7. Engineering Graphics/ Drawing
  8. 1. Introduction to Engineering Graphics

    • Importance and applications of engineering drawing
    • Standards in drawing, BIS/ISO standards
    • Types of drawing sheets, layout, and folding

    2. Drawing Instruments and Their Uses

    • Use of drawing instruments: compass, set-square, protractor, etc.
    • Lettering and dimensioning techniques

    3. Orthographic Projections

    • Principles of orthographic projection
    • Projections of points and lines
    • Projections of planes and solids

    4. Isometric and Axonometric Projections

    • Fundamentals of isometric projection
    • Isometric views and drawings
    • Axonometric views: Dimetric, trimetric projections

    5. Pictorial Projections

    • Oblique projections
    • Perspective projections

    6. Sectional Views

    • Purpose and types of sectional views
    • Full, half, and broken sections
    • Revolved and removed sections

    7. Dimensioning

    • Principles and types of dimensioning
    • Dimensioning various geometrical entities and features

    8. Development of Surfaces

    • Development of surfaces of simple objects
    • Prisms, pyramids, cylinders, and cones

    9. Intersection of Surfaces

    • Intersection of solid with solid
    • Intersection of prism with prism, cylinder with cylinder, etc.

    10. Threaded Fasteners and Riveted Joints

    • Types of threads, nuts, and bolts
    • Different types of riveted joints

    11. Assembly and Disassembly Drawings

    • Introduction to machine drawing
    • Assembly drawing from individual component drawings
    • Disassembly drawings showing all parts of a machine/component

    12. Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD)

    • Introduction to CAD software
    • Basic commands and operations
    • Advantages of CAD over manual drafting

    13. Freehand Sketching

    • Techniques for freehand sketching of machine elements
    • Representation of standard components
  9. Basic Mechanical Engineering
  10. 1. Introduction to Mechanical Engineering

    • Evolution and importance of mechanical engineering
    • Disciplines and specializations in mechanical engineering
    • Role of mechanical engineers in industry and society

    2. Thermodynamics

    • Basic concepts: System, property, state, process, cycle, energy, entropy, etc.
    • Laws of thermodynamics
    • Concepts of heat, work, internal energy, and enthalpy
    • Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot, Otto, Diesel, etc.

    3. IC Engines

    • Types of internal combustion engines
    • Basic engine components and their functions
    • Four-stroke and two-stroke cycles
    • Engine performance parameters

    4. Power Plants

    • Types of power plants: Thermal, hydro, nuclear, etc.
    • Basic components and their functions
    • Energy conversion in power plants
    • Renewable energy: Wind, solar, and biomass

    5. Fluid Mechanics

    • Properties of fluids
    • Fluid statics: Pressure, Pascal's law, buoyancy, etc.
    • Fluid dynamics: Bernoulli's theorem, laminar and turbulent flows, etc.
    • Basic hydraulic machines: Pumps and turbines

    6. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

    • Principles of refrigeration and air conditioning
    • Refrigeration cycles: Vapor compression, vapor absorption, etc.
    • Refrigerants: Types and properties
    • Basic components of air conditioning systems

    7. Manufacturing Processes

    • Introduction to machining and manufacturing processes
    • Casting, forging, rolling, and extrusion
    • Welding, soldering, and brazing
    • Introduction to CNC machines

    8. Machine Tools and Operations

    • Basic machine tools: Lathe, drilling machine, milling machine, etc.
    • Basic operations: Turning, drilling, milling, etc.

    9. Mechanisms

    • Basic concepts of mechanisms
    • Linkages, gears, and cams
    • Study of simple mechanisms: Crankshaft, connecting rod, etc.

    10. Materials and Metallurgy

    • Classification and properties of engineering materials
    • Crystal structures and defects
    • Heat treatment processes
    • Non-ferrous alloys and composites

    11. Measurement and Instrumentation

    • Basic concepts of measurement
    • Measuring instruments for length, temperature, pressure, etc.
    • Calibration and errors in measurement
  11. Environmental Studies
  12. 1. Introduction to Environmental Studies

    • Definition, scope, and importance
    • Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
    • Need for public awareness

    2. Ecosystems

    • Concept of an ecosystem
    • Structure and function of an ecosystem
    • Energy flow in ecosystems
    • Types of ecosystems: forest, grassland, desert, aquatic, etc.

    3. Biodiversity and Conservation

    • Introduction to biodiversity: genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity
    • Biogeographical classification of India
    • Value of biodiversity: consumptive, productive, social, ethical, and aesthetic
    • Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching, man-wildlife conflicts
    • Conservation of biodiversity: in-situ and ex-situ conservation

    4. Natural Resources

    • Renewable and non-renewable resources
    • Water resources: Use, over-utilization, and conservation
    • Mineral resources: Use, impacts of mining, sustainable mining
    • Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, and conservation
    • Forest resources: Use, deforestation, conservation

    5. Environmental Pollution

    • Definition, causes, effects, and control measures of:
      • Air pollution
      • Water pollution
      • Soil pollution
      • Noise pollution
      • Thermal pollution
      • Nuclear hazards
    • Role of individuals in pollution prevention

    6. Social Issues and the Environment

    • Urban problems related to energy and water
    • Resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced people
    • Environmental ethics
    • Climate change, global warming, and their mitigation measures
    • Acid rain, ozone layer depletion
    • Nuclear accidents and holocaust

    7. Sustainable Development

    • Concept of sustainability
    • Threats to sustainability and strategies for sustainable development
    • Water conservation, rainwater harvesting
    • Renewable energy sources

    8. Environmental Legislation and Policy

    • Environmental laws and regulations
    • International environmental agreements and protocols
    • Role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in environmental conservation

    9. Human Population and the Environment

    • Population growth, variations, and explosion
    • Environment and human health
    • Role of information technology in the environment and human health

    10. Field Work

    • Visit to a local area to document environmental assets
    • Study of simple ecosystems
    • Study of local polluted sites
  13. English/Communication Skills
  14. 1. Introduction to Communication

    • Definition and importance of communication
    • Types of communication: verbal, non-verbal, written, visual
    • Barriers to effective communication

    2. Basic Language Skills

    • Vocabulary building: antonyms, synonyms, one-word substitutions
    • Basic grammar: tenses, voice, speech, articles, prepositions, etc.
    • Sentence construction and types of sentences

    3. Listening Skills

    • Importance and types of listening
    • Barriers to effective listening
    • Tips for active and empathetic listening

    4. Speaking Skills

    • Pronunciation, accent, and intonation
    • Role plays, group discussions, and extempore
    • Presentation skills and public speaking

    5. Reading Skills

    • Skimming, scanning, and intensive reading
    • Comprehension exercises
    • Note-making and summarizing

    6. Writing Skills

    • Formal letters, emails, and memos
    • Report writing
    • Writing resumes/CVs and application letters
    • Short essays and paragraphs

    7. Group Communication

    • Meetings and group discussions
    • Effective participation and leadership in group situations
    • Teamwork and collaboration

    8. Non-verbal Communication

    • Body language: gestures, postures, facial expressions
    • Use of space and distance
    • Paralanguage: tone, pitch, volume

    9. Technical Writing

    • Features of technical writing
    • Writing technical manuals, instructions, and procedures
    • Technical reports and summaries

    10. Digital Communication

    • Basics of digital communication platforms
    • Netiquette: etiquette on the internet
    • Writing for the web: blogs, posts, comments

    11. Ethical and Cross-cultural Communication

    • Importance of ethics in communication
    • Understanding cross-cultural communication barriers
    • Strategies for effective cross-cultural communication

    12. Practice Sessions (Labs/Workshops)

    • Listening exercises using audio-visual aids
    • Role plays and simulation exercises
    • Presentation and group discussion sessions
  15. Physics Lab
  16. 1. Errors and Measurement

    • Measurement of diameter and volume using vernier calipers, micrometer, and traveling microscope to understand precision and accuracy.
    • Determination of the young modulus of a material using Searle's apparatus.

    2. Optics

    • Determination of the wavelength of monochromatic light using a diffraction grating.
    • Study of the variation of the angle of diffraction with the wavelength of light using a spectrometer.
    • Determination of numerical aperture and acceptance angle of an optical fiber.

    3. Lasers

    • Determination of the wavelength of a laser source using a diffraction grating.
    • Study of the variation of laser beam intensity with distance.

    4. Magnetism

    • Study of a B-H curve for a ferromagnetic material using CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope).
    • Determination of magnetic susceptibility of given specimens.

    5. Modern Physics

    • Determination of Planck’s constant using a photoelectric cell.
    • Verification of Stefan’s Law using a blackbody radiation setup.
    • Determination of the bandgap of a semiconductor material.

    6. Acoustics

    • Determination of the frequency of an electrically maintained tuning fork using Melde’s experiment.
    • Study of the characteristics of a sonometer wire under various tension levels.

    7. Electricity

    • Measurement of low resistance using the Carey Foster bridge method.
    • Verification of Kirchhoff’s laws using electrical circuits.
    • Study of the charging and discharging cycles of a capacitor.

    8. Ultrasonics

    • Determination of the velocity of ultrasonic waves in a given liquid using an ultrasonic interferometer.

    9. Material Properties

    • Determination of the specific rotation of a given solution using a polarimeter.
    • Verification of Newton’s law of cooling.

    10. Advanced Experiments

    • Introduction to the use of advanced equipment like a spectrometer, oscilloscope, etc.
    • Measurement and analysis of waveforms using an oscilloscope.

    11. Computer Interfaced Experiments

    • Some modern labs might also incorporate experiments interfaced with computers for real-time data acquisition and analysis.
  17. Chemistry Lab
  18. 1. Water Analysis

    • Determination of hardness of water by EDTA method.
    • Estimation of chlorine in water.
    • Estimation of dissolved oxygen in water.

    2. Fuels and Lubricants

    • Determination of flash and fire point of a given lubricating oil.
    • Calorific value estimation of a fuel using a bomb calorimeter.
    • Determination of viscosity of a lubricating oil using a Redwood viscometer.

    3. Polymers and Plastics

    • Preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resin.
    • Preparation of nylon or a similar polymer.
    • Testing of plastics for tensile strength, elongation, and bending.

    4. Electrochemistry

    • Measurement of cell potential and calculation of standard electrode potential.
    • Conductometric titration to determine the strength of a given acid or base.
    • Potentiometric titrations: acid-base or oxidation-reduction reactions.

    5. pH and Buffer Solutions

    • pH measurement of various samples using a pH meter.
    • Preparation and pH determination of buffer solutions.

    6. Spectroscopy

    • Determination of the concentration of a solution using UV-visible spectroscopy.
    • Estimation of metal ions in a solution using flame photometry or atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    7. Chromatography

    • Separation of pigments or dyes using paper chromatography or thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
    • Separation and identification of amino acids using column chromatography.

    8. Corrosion Studies

    • Study of the rate of corrosion for different metals in different media.
    • Effect of inhibitors on the rate of corrosion.

    9. Organic Synthesis and Analysis

    • Synthesis of aspirin or another simple organic compound.
    • Qualitative analysis to identify functional groups in organic compounds.

    10. Metal Analysis

    • Estimation of iron in an ore sample using titrimetric analysis.
    • Estimation of copper in brass.

    11. Instrumental Techniques

    • Introduction to techniques like FTIR, NMR, etc., if available in the lab.
    • Sample analysis using the aforementioned techniques.

Semester 2:

  1. Engineering Mathematics II
    1. Differential Equations:

      • First-order ordinary differential equations
      • Exact and non-exact equations
      • Linear differential equations of higher order
      • Applications: Newton’s Law of Cooling, Electrical circuits, etc.
    2. Laplace Transforms:

      • Definition and properties
      • Inverse Laplace Transform
      • Applications in solving ordinary differential equations
    3. Vector Calculus:

      • Scalar and vector fields
      • Gradient, divergence, and curl
      • Line integrals
      • Surface and volume integrals
      • Stokes' theorem, Gauss divergence theorem, and Green’s theorem (in a plane)
    4. Complex Variables:

      • Complex functions and their properties
      • Analytic functions
      • Cauchy-Riemann conditions
      • Complex integration: Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula
      • Taylor and Laurent series
      • Singularities, residues, and residue theorem
      • Evaluation of real integrals using the residue theorem
    5. Matrices:

      • Rank of a matrix
      • Systems of linear equations
      • Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
      • Diagonalization
      • Orthogonal matrices
    6. Partial Differential Equations:

      • Formation and solutions of first-order equations
      • Linear equations of second order
      • Classification: parabolic, elliptic, and hyperbolic
      • Method of separation of variables for wave, heat, and Laplace's equations
    7. Series Solutions and Special Functions:

      • Power series solutions
      • Bessel’s and Legendre’s differential equations and their series solutions
      • Bessel and Legendre functions and their properties
  2. Basic Electrical & Electronics Engineering
  3. 1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering

    • Basics of electrical engineering
    • Passive components: Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor
    • DC and AC circuits
    • Electrical power and energy

    2. DC Circuits

    • Ohm's Law
    • Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws (KVL & KCL)
    • Series and parallel circuits
    • Network theorems: Thevenin's, Norton's, Superposition, Maximum Power Transfer, etc.

    3. AC Circuits

    • Sinusoidal waveforms: amplitude, frequency, phase
    • Complex representation of AC quantities: phasors
    • AC through R, L, and C: impedance and reactance
    • Power in AC circuits: active, reactive, apparent power, power factor
    • Resonance

    4. Transformers

    • Working principle
    • Ideal vs real transformers
    • Equivalent circuit
    • Phasor diagrams

    5. Basic Motors and Generators

    • Basic principles of electromechanical energy conversion
    • DC motors and generators: working, types, characteristics
    • AC motors: synchronous and asynchronous (induction) motors

    6. Introduction to Electronics Engineering

    • Difference between electrical and electronics engineering
    • Basics of semiconductors: P and N-type
    • PN Junction diode: characteristics and applications

    7. Transistors

    • Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT): working, configurations (CB, CE, CC), applications
    • Field Effect Transistor (FET): working and applications

    8. Analog Circuits

    • Amplifiers: types, frequency response, feedback
    • Oscillators: basics and types (Hartley, Colpitts, etc.)
    • Operational amplifiers (Op-Amps): characteristics, open-loop and closed-loop configurations, applications (adders, subtractors, integrators, differentiators)

    9. Digital Electronics

    • Binary numbers and arithmetic
    • Logic gates: AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, XNOR
    • Combinational circuits: multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders, decoders
    • Sequential circuits: latches, flip-flops, counters

    10. Introduction to Communication Systems

    • Basics of communication: modulation, demodulation
    • Analog communication: amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM)
    • Basic introduction to digital communication

    11. Safety and Wiring

    • Basic safety measures in electrical systems
    • Types of wiring, fuses, and grounding
  4. Engineering Mechanics
  5. 1. Introduction

    • Definition and basics of mechanics
    • The concept of a rigid body and a deformable body
    • Fundamental concepts and principles of mechanics

    2. Resultant of Force Systems

    • Basic concepts of force, moment, and couple
    • Composition and resolution of forces
    • Resultant of concurrent and non-concurrent force systems
    • Equilibrium and free body diagrams

    3. Equilibrium of Structures

    • Conditions for equilibrium
    • Analysis of pin-jointed planar frames (trusses)
    • Methods of joints and sections

    4. Friction

    • Types of friction: static, kinetic, and rolling
    • Laws of dry friction
    • Applications: wedges, belts, screws, and ladder problems

    5. Properties of Surfaces

    • Centroids and center of gravity of lines, areas, and volumes
    • Moments of inertia: area and mass moments of inertia
    • Radius of gyration
    • Parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorems

    6. Kinematics of Particles

    • Rectilinear and curvilinear motions
    • Cartesian, polar, and path coordinates
    • Relative motion
    • Graphical analysis of velocity and acceleration

    7. Kinetics of Particles

    • Newton's second law
    • Work-energy principle
    • Impulse-momentum principle
    • Impact: direct and oblique impact

    8. Kinematics of Rigid Bodies

    • Rotation and translation
    • Instantaneous center of rotation
    • Angular velocity and angular acceleration

    9. Kinetics of Rigid Bodies

    • Equation of motion: translation and rotational
    • Work done, kinetic energy, and potential energy
    • Principles of work-energy and impulse-momentum for rigid bodies

    10. Virtual Work and Energy Principles

    • Concept of virtual displacement and virtual work
    • Principle of virtual work for particle and rigid body
    • Potential energy and stability of equilibrium

    11. Dynamics of Systems of Particles

    • Linear and angular momentum
    • Kinetic energy
    • Conservation principles
  6. Computer Programming
  7. 1. Introduction

    • Basics of computer systems
    • Role of software
    • Overview of programming languages

    2. Programming Fundamentals

    • Algorithms: Definition and importance
    • Flowcharts and pseudo code
    • Introduction to a typical programming language (commonly C, Python, or Java)

    3. Basic I/O Operations

    • Reading input (keyboard, files)
    • Displaying output (console, files)

    4. Data Types and Variables

    • Primitive data types (e.g., int, float, char in C or C++)
    • Variables, constants, and enumerations
    • Operators and expressions

    5. Control Structures

    • Conditional statements (e.g., if, switch-case)
    • Looping structures (e.g., for, while, do-while)

    6. Functions

    • Introduction to functions/methods
    • Function declaration, definition, and calling
    • Recursion
    • Scope and lifetime of variables

    7. Arrays and Strings

    • Declaration and initialization
    • Accessing array elements
    • Multi-dimensional arrays
    • Basic string operations

    8. Pointers (mainly in C or C++)

    • Basics of pointers
    • Pointer arithmetic
    • Pointers and arrays, functions, and structures

    9. Data Structures

    • Introduction to structures (or classes in OOP-based courses)
    • Stack, Queue, Linked List (basic introduction)

    10. File Handling

    • File operations: open, close, read, write
    • Sequential and random file access

    11. Memory Management

    • Dynamic memory allocation (malloc, calloc in C; new in C++ or Java)
    • Memory deallocation (free in C; delete in C++)

    12. Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

    (This section is more emphasized in courses using languages like Java, C++, or Python)

    • Classes and objects
    • Inheritance, Polymorphism, Encapsulation, and Abstraction
    • Constructors and destructors
    • Function overloading and overriding

    13. Error Handling and Debugging

    • Basic concepts of debugging
    • Handling exceptions

    14. Introduction to Standard Libraries

    • Common libraries provided by the programming language and their usage (e.g., C Standard Library for C programming)

    15. Best Practices

    • Coding standards and conventions
    • Commenting and documentation
    • Basic software engineering principles
  8. Workshop Practice
  9. 1. Introduction

    • Overview of workshop practices and its importance in Aeronautical Engineering.
    • Safety precautions and guidelines in a workshop.

    2. Fitting Shop

    • Introduction to fitting tools: chisels, hammers, files, hacksaw, etc.
    • Jobs involving marking, cutting, filing, drilling, and tapping.

    3. Welding Shop

    • Introduction to welding: its types and applications in aeronautics.
    • Basic welding techniques: Arc welding, Gas welding, TIG, MIG.
    • Safety procedures and equipment used in welding.

    4. Smithy and Forging

    • Introduction to forging tools and equipment.
    • Basic forging operations: drawing, upsetting, bending, and swaging.
    • Projects involving the making of simple components using forging.

    5. Sheet Metal Work

    • Importance in aeronautics for skin, fuselage, and other components.
    • Tools and operations: shearing, bending, joining.
    • Making simple components like trays, funnels, etc.

    6. Machining and Machine Tools

    • Introduction to lathe, milling, drilling, and grinding machines.
    • Basic operations on a lathe: turning, knurling, facing, and threading.
    • Awareness of CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machines.

    7. Foundry

    • Basic foundry operations: molding, core making, casting.
    • Types of furnaces and casting techniques.
    • Casting defects and their identification.

    8. Electrical and Electronics Workshop

    • Introduction to basic electrical tools and equipment.
    • Simple circuit making, soldering, and desoldering techniques.
    • Introduction to basic electronic components and their usage.

    9. Carpentry Shop

    • Wood as a material in early aircraft.
    • Introduction to carpentry tools: saws, chisels, planes.
    • Simple carpentry joints and projects.

    10. Plumbing and Pipe Fitting

    • Introduction to piping systems in aircraft for fuel, hydraulics, etc.
    • Basic pipe fitting tools and operations.

    11. Composite Workshop (optional, but increasingly important)

    • Basics of composite materials: types and properties.
    • Hand lay-up and vacuum bagging processes.
    • Importance of composites in modern aircraft structures.

    12. Report Making and Documentation

    • Importance of accurate documentation in aeronautical industries.
    • Procedures to create reports on workshop tasks performed.
  10. Electrical & Electronics Lab
  11. 1. Safety Protocols

    • Introduction to lab safety procedures.
    • Proper use of electrical and electronic equipment.
    • Identification and usage of emergency safety equipment.

    2. Study of Basic Electrical Components

    • Familiarization with resistors, capacitors, inductors, switches, and transformers.
    • Color coding of resistors and identification.
    • Using multimeters to measure resistance, current, and voltage.

    3. DC Circuits

    • Construction and testing of simple DC circuits.
    • Verification of Ohm's Law.
    • Study of series and parallel combinations of resistors.

    4. AC Circuits

    • Study of AC waveforms using an oscilloscope.
    • Measurement of peak, peak-to-peak, RMS values, and frequency.
    • Study of series and parallel LC, LR, and LCR circuits.

    5. Rectifiers and Filters

    • Constructing and testing of half-wave and full-wave rectifiers.
    • Using capacitors for filtering in power supply circuits.

    6. Basic Electronics

    • Study of characteristics of PN junction diode.
    • Characteristics of transistors (BJT – both PNP and NPN).

    7. Operational Amplifiers

    • Basic op-amp circuits: inverting, non-inverting, integrator, and differentiator.
    • Study of op-amp parameters.

    8. Digital Electronics

    • Introduction to logic gates: AND, OR, NOT, XOR, NAND, NOR.
    • Construction and testing of basic logic circuits.
    • Introduction to flip-flops and basic digital circuits.

    9. Measurement Instruments

    • Use of voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter.
    • Familiarization with function generators and oscilloscopes.

    10. Transformers

    • Study of single-phase transformers.
    • Open circuit and short circuit tests.
    • Determination of efficiency and regulation.

    11. Motors and Generators

    • Study of DC motors, starters, and their applications.
    • Introduction to AC motors – single-phase and three-phase induction motors.

    12. Soldering and Desoldering Techniques

    • Soldering of electronic components on PCB.
    • Techniques for desoldering and component replacement.

    13. Study of Aerospace-Specific Electronics (if included)

    • Basics of avionics systems.
    • Introduction to aircraft electrical systems, sensors, and actuators.

    14. Final Project/Assignment

    • A mini-project or set of assignments that combine various lab learnings.
  12. Computer Programming Lab
  13. 1. Introduction to the Programming Environment

    • Familiarization with the software tool (often C, Python, MATLAB, or Fortran depending on the curriculum).
    • Basics of the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) or compiler used.
    • Writing, compiling, and executing the first program (e.g., "Hello World").

    2. Basic Input/Output Operations

    • Programs to practice reading input and displaying output.
    • Use of different data types and format specifiers.

    3. Control Structures

    • Programs implementing conditional statements: if, if-else, switch-case.
    • Programs with looping structures: for, while, do-while.

    4. Functions and Recursion

    • Writing modular code using functions.
    • Implementing simple recursive functions.

    5. Arrays and Strings

    • Programs to handle arrays: insertion, deletion, searching, sorting.
    • String manipulation programs: string length, concatenation, comparison, etc.

    6. Pointers and Dynamic Memory Allocation

    • Basics of pointers: declaration, initialization.
    • Dynamic memory allocation for arrays, matrices using malloc, calloc (mainly in C or C++ environments).

    7. File Handling

    • Programs for file operations: reading, writing, appending.
    • Binary and text file manipulations.

    8. Data Structures

    • Implementing simple data structures like stacks, queues, and linked lists.
    • Basic operations like push, pop, enqueue, dequeue.

    9. Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming

    (For labs using OOP languages like C++ or Java)

    • Programs to define and use classes and objects.
    • Implementation of inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation.

    10. Graphical Programming and Visualization

    (If the lab uses MATLAB or Python with libraries)

    • Plotting basic 2D and 3D graphs.
    • Data visualization techniques.

    11. Problem-Solving in Aeronautics

    • Simple numerical methods commonly used in aeronautics, e.g., solving differential equations, integration.
    • Programs related to basic aerodynamics or flight mechanics problems, if introduced.

    12. Mini-Projects or Assignments

    • Combining various concepts learned in the lab.
    • Might include a simple simulation, data analysis task, or aeronautics problem-solving.

    13. Documentation and Best Practices

    • Writing program documentation.
    • Following good coding practices and standards.

Semester 3:

  1. Engineering Mathematics III
  2. 1. Complex Analysis

    • Complex numbers and functions
    • Analytic functions
    • Cauchy-Riemann equations
    • Complex integration
    • Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula
    • Taylor and Laurent series
    • Residue theorem and its applications

    2. Partial Differential Equations (PDE)

    • Formation of PDEs
    • Solutions of first-order PDEs
    • Linear PDEs of higher orders
    • Applications: wave equation, heat equation, and Laplace's equation in engineering problems

    3. Laplace Transforms

    • Definition and properties
    • Inverse Laplace transform
    • Application to solve ordinary differential equations
    • Convolution theorem
    • Applications in engineering problems, especially control systems

    4. Fourier Series and Transforms

    • Periodic functions and their expansions
    • Even and odd functions
    • Half-range expansions
    • Fourier integral theorem
    • Fourier transform and its applications in signal processing

    5. Probability and Statistics

    • Basic probability theory: events, sample space, conditional probability
    • Discrete and continuous random variables
    • Probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson, and Normal distribution
    • Sampling theory, estimation, and hypothesis testing
    • Regression and correlation

    6. Vector Calculus

    • Gradient, divergence, and curl
    • Line, surface, and volume integrals
    • Stokes theorem, Gauss divergence theorem, and Green’s theorem
    • Applications in fluid dynamics and electromagnetic fields

    7. Numerical Methods

    • Solutions of algebraic and transcendental equations: Bisection, Newton-Raphson
    • Numerical differentiation and integration: Trapezoidal and Simpson's rule
    • Numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations: Euler's method, Runge-Kutta methods

    8. Z-Transforms (sometimes included, especially if control systems are a focus)

    • Z-transform properties and theorems
    • Inverse Z-transform
    • Applications in discrete data and control systems

    9. Special Topics (based on university or regional preferences)

    • Bessel functions, Legendre polynomials
    • Orthogonal and orthonormal functions
    • Sturm-Liouville problems
  3. Thermodynamics
  4. 1. Introduction

    • Basic concepts and definitions
    • Macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints
    • Systems, properties, state, processes, and cycles

    2. Laws of Thermodynamics

    • Zeroth law and thermal equilibrium
    • First law and the principle of energy conservation
    • Second law and entropy concept
    • Third law and its implications

    3. Properties of Pure Substances

    • Phase diagrams and P-V-T surfaces
    • Property tables, steam tables, and ideal gas tables
    • Internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heats

    4. Gas Laws and Equations of State

    • Ideal gas laws
    • Van der Waals, Beattie-Bridgeman, and other real gas equations

    5. Energy Transfer

    • Work and heat transfer
    • Modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation
    • First law analysis for closed and open systems

    6. Entropy and Second Law Analysis

    • Entropy generation and principle of increase of entropy
    • Reversible and irreversible processes
    • Carnot cycle and efficiency

    7. Thermodynamic Cycles

    • Power cycles: Otto, Diesel, and Brayton cycles (special emphasis on jet engine cycle analysis)
    • Refrigeration cycles: Vapor-compression, vapor-absorption

    8. Gas Mixtures and Psychrometrics

    • Properties of gas mixtures: ideal and real
    • Psychrometric properties, processes, and applications in aeronautical contexts

    9. Reacting Mixtures and Combustion

    • Stoichiometry, chemical equations
    • First law analysis of reacting systems
    • Adiabatic flame temperature
    • Combustion efficiency
    • Applications in jet propulsion

    10. Gas Power Cycles

    • Air-standard assumptions
    • Analysis of cycles relevant to aviation: turbojet, turbofan, turboprop

    11. Gas Dynamics

    • Introduction to compressible flow (might be touched upon, depending on the program's structure)
    • Speed of sound, Mach number
    • Isentropic flow through nozzles and diffusers

    12. Propulsion and Jet Engines (if included in the Thermodynamics course)

    • Basic principles of propulsion
    • Types of jet engines: turbojet, turbofan, turboshaft, ramjet, scramjet
    • Engine performance parameters

    13. Non-reactive Gas Mixtures

    • Dalton's and Amagat's laws
    • Analysis of mixtures with varying composition

    14. Special Topics (based on university or regional preferences)

    • Thermodynamics of irreversible processes
    • Exergy analysis and availability
    • Introductions to statistical and quantum thermodynamics
  5. Mechanics of Solids
  6. 1. Introduction

    • Basic concepts: stress, strain, elasticity, and plasticity
    • Types of loads: axial, bending, torsional
    • Types of supports and their reactions

    2. Stress and Strain Analysis

    • Axial loading: tension and compression
    • Shear stress and shear strain
    • Poisson's ratio, elastic constants, and their relationships

    3. Stress-Strain Diagram

    • Elastic and plastic behavior of materials
    • Ductility, brittleness, malleability, resilience, and toughness
    • Modulus of elasticity, yield strength, ultimate strength

    4. Principal Stresses and Strains

    • Two-dimensional stress system
    • Mohr’s circle representation
    • Theories of failure: Maximum shear stress theory, Maximum principal stress theory, etc.

    5. Shear Force and Bending Moment

    • Definitions and sign conventions
    • SF and BM diagrams for simple beams under various loadings
    • Point of contraflexure

    6. Flexural Stresses

    • Bending equation and its applications
    • Section modulus
    • Bending stresses in symmetric and unsymmetric sections

    7. Shear Stresses in Beams

    • Distribution of shear stress in various beam cross-sections
    • Shear flow and shear center

    8. Torsion

    • Torsion of circular shafts and tubes
    • Power transmission in shafts
    • Angle of twist calculations

    9. Columns and Struts

    • Buckling and modes of failure
    • Slenderness ratio
    • Euler's and Rankine's formulas for axial load capacities

    10. Thin Cylinders and Spheres

    • Stresses due to internal pressures
    • Change in dimensions and volume

    11. Deflection of Beams

    • Double integration method
    • Macaulay's method
    • Area-moment method
    • Conjugate beam method

    12. Energy Methods

    • Strain energy and resilience
    • Castigliano's theorem
    • Energy methods for determining deflections and stresses

    13. Thermal Stresses

    • Stresses induced due to temperature changes
    • Compound bars and their behavior under temperature variations

    14. Transformation of Stresses and Strains

    • Plane stress and plane strain situations
    • Transformation equations and principal values

    15. Introduction to Advanced Topics (if included)

    • Introduction to composite materials and their behavior
    • Basic concepts of fracture mechanics
    • Fatigue and repetitive loading
  7. Aerodynamics I
  8. 1. Introduction

    • Definition and scope of aerodynamics
    • Historical background
    • Overview of aerodynamic forces and moments

    2. Fundamental Concepts

    • Fluid properties: density, viscosity, temperature, pressure
    • Concept of continuum
    • Flow classifications: steady/unsteady, laminar/turbulent, compressible/incompressible, subsonic/transonic/supersonic/hypersonic

    3. Fluid Statics

    • Basic hydrostatic equation
    • Manometry
    • Pressure variation in an atmosphere

    4. Control Volume Analysis

    • Reynold's transport theorem
    • Continuity equation
    • Momentum and energy equations

    5. Elementary Fluid Dynamics

    • Bernoulli’s equation and applications
    • Venturi tube, Pitot-static tube, and other flow-measuring devices
    • Dynamic lift

    6. Theory of Wing Section Lift

    • Circulation and vorticity
    • Kutta-Joukowski theorem
    • Starting vortex and bound vortex

    7. Thin Airfoil Theory

    • Symmetrical and cambered airfoils
    • Pressure distribution and aerodynamic coefficients
    • Center of pressure and aerodynamic center

    8. Finite Wing Theory

    • Downwash and induced drag
    • Elliptical lift distribution
    • Aspect ratio and its influence
    • Wing tip vortices

    9. Viscous Flow Concepts

    • Boundary layers: laminar and turbulent
    • Boundary layer growth and separation
    • Effects of boundary layer on aerodynamic performance

    10. Flow over Bodies

    • Drag and its components: pressure drag, friction drag
    • Streamlined and bluff bodies
    • Flow around spheres, cylinders, and airfoils

    11. High Lift Devices

    • Leading and trailing edge flaps
    • Slats and slots
    • Aerodynamic effects of these devices on aircraft performance

    12. Introduction to Compressible Flow

    • Speed of sound, Mach number
    • Isentropic flow relations
    • Normal shock waves

    13. Wind Tunnel Testing (If included in Aerodynamics I)

    • Types of wind tunnels: subsonic, supersonic
    • Similarity and modeling rules: Reynolds number, Mach scaling
    • Measurement techniques and instrumentation
  9. Manufacturing Technology
  10. 1. Introduction

    • Overview of manufacturing processes
    • Classification of manufacturing processes: casting, forming, machining, joining, etc.
    • Importance of manufacturing in aerospace industry

    2. Casting Processes

    • Sand casting, die casting, investment casting
    • Casting defects and inspection methods
    • Applications in aerospace components

    3. Bulk Deformation Processes

    • Rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing
    • Cold and hot working processes
    • Advantages and limitations of deformation processes

    4. Sheet Metal Working

    • Bending, shearing, deep drawing, stretch forming
    • Manufacturing of aircraft fuselage and wing structures
    • Joining techniques: riveting, spot welding

    5. Machining Processes

    • Basic operations: turning, drilling, milling, grinding
    • Advanced machining: EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), ECM (Electrochemical Machining)
    • Tolerances, surface finish, and machining parameters

    6. Joining Processes

    • Welding: arc welding, gas welding, resistance welding, laser beam welding
    • Soldering and brazing
    • Adhesive bonding specific to aerospace applications

    7. Powder Metallurgy

    • Powder production, blending, compacting
    • Sintering and post-sintering operations
    • Applications in aerospace components

    8. Advanced Manufacturing Techniques

    • Rapid prototyping: 3D printing, stereo-lithography
    • CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machining
    • CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) processes

    9. Non-traditional Machining

    • Ultrasonic machining, water jet machining
    • Plasma arc machining
    • Applications in intricate aerospace components

    10. Surface Treatment and Finishing

    • Heat treatment processes: annealing, quenching, tempering
    • Surface coatings: electroplating, CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition), PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition)
    • Anodizing and its significance in aerospace materials

    11. Plastics and Composite Manufacturing

    • Injection molding, compression molding
    • Lay-up and curing processes for composites
    • Applications of composites in modern aircraft structures

    12. Inspection and Quality Control

    • Non-destructive testing methods: ultrasonography, radiography, magnetic particle inspection
    • Quality standards in aerospace manufacturing
    • Statistical quality control

    13. Aerospace Materials

    • Properties and applications of materials like titanium, Inconel, aluminum alloys
    • High-performance polymers and ceramics in aerospace
    • Introduction to smart materials and structures

    14. Introduction to Automation in Manufacturing

    • Basic concepts of automation
    • Role of robotics in aerospace manufacturing
    • Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS)
  11. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Lab
  12. 1. Introduction to CAD Environment

    • Overview of CAD tools and their importance in engineering design
    • Introduction to the chosen CAD software interface (e.g., CATIA, SolidWorks, AutoCAD, etc.)
    • Basic commands, file operations, and customization

    2. Sketching Techniques

    • Drawing basic geometric entities: lines, circles, arcs, polygons
    • Dimensioning and applying geometric constraints
    • Sketch modifications and transformations

    3. 2D Drafting

    • Construction of orthographic, isometric, and sectional views
    • Annotation, hatching, and detailing
    • Assembly drawings with parts list and bill of materials

    4. 3D Modeling

    • Creating parts using extrusion, revolution, sweep, and loft
    • Feature-based modeling: adding holes, fillets, chamfers, patterns, etc.
    • Parametric modeling concepts

    5. Assembly Design

    • Assembling multiple components using mating conditions
    • Exploded views of assemblies
    • Assembly interference and clearance checks

    6. Surface Modeling

    • Introduction to surface design principles
    • Creation of complex surfaces suitable for aerospace applications
    • Operations like trimming, merging, and offsetting surfaces

    7. Design of Simple Aircraft Components

    • Wing design: airfoil selection, wing planform, rib, and spar construction
    • Fuselage cross-section and longitudinal construction
    • Landing gear components and auxiliary structures

    8. Aerofoil Analysis

    • Importing standard aerofoil profiles
    • Creating 3D models of wing sections
    • Basic flow visualization around the wing using CAD-integrated tools

    9. Drafting and Documentation

    • Setting up drawing layouts and templates
    • Printing, plotting, and exporting drawings
    • Creating part and assembly documentation

    10. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Basics (if integrated with CAD)

    • Meshing techniques for aeronautical components
    • Basic stress analysis on structural members
    • Visualization of stress, strain, and displacement distributions

    11. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Concepts (if included)

    • Basic mesh generation for fluid flow analysis
    • Flow visualization tools in CAD
    • Simple aerodynamic studies on aircraft components

    12. Project Work

    • Designing an aircraft component or assembly from scratch
    • Documentation, assembly, and analysis of the designed component

    13. Presentation and Review

    • Presentation of the completed project
    • Peer reviews and feedback integration
  13. Mechanics of Solids Lab
  14. 1. Tensile Testing

    • Determining the tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, and ductility of given specimen (e.g., mild steel)
    • Plotting stress-strain curves

    2. Compression Testing

    • Determination of compressive strength of materials like wood or concrete
    • Analysis of buckling in slender columns

    3. Bending Test

    • Study of bending stresses in beams
    • Calculation of the moment of inertia and section modulus
    • Plotting the bending stress distribution across sections

    4. Torsion Test

    • Determining the modulus of rigidity
    • Studying the behavior of circular shafts under torsional loading
    • Analysing the shear stress distribution in shafts

    5. Impact Testing

    • Izod & Charpy impact tests to determine the toughness of materials
    • Analyzing the brittle and ductile behavior of materials

    6. Hardness Testing

    • Brinell, Rockwell, and Vickers hardness tests
    • Understanding the implications of hardness on material selection

    7. Deflection of Beams

    • Verifying the deflection equations for cantilever and simply supported beams
    • Using various load configurations (point loads, uniformly distributed loads)

    8. Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

    • Experimental setup to plot SFD and BMD for beams under various loading conditions
    • Verification of theoretical and experimental results

    9. Column Buckling Test

    • Determining the critical buckling load for different end conditions
    • Studying the effect of slenderness ratio on buckling

    10. Thin Cylinder Stresses

    • Determining hoop and longitudinal stresses in thin-walled pressure vessels
    • Analyzing the effect of internal pressures

    11. Photoelasticity Experiments (if facilities are available)

    • Qualitative stress analysis using photoelastic models
    • Observing fringe patterns and understanding stress concentrations

    12. Strain Gauge Experiments

    • Basics of strain gauge measurements
    • Determining strain in components under load
    • Using Wheatstone bridge circuits for measurements

    13. Experiment on Springs

    • Studying the behavior of springs under tension and compression
    • Verifying spring constants and the series and parallel combinations of springs

    14. Flexural Test

    • Determining the flexural strength of materials like plastics or composites
    • Analyzing the failure modes

    15. Laboratory Project/Case Study

    • A mini-project or case study analyzing a real-world problem or component using the principles of solid mechanics

Semester 4:

  1. Aerodynamics II
  2. 1. Review of Fundamental Aerodynamics

    • Basics of fluid flow, concepts of lift, drag, and moment
    • Recap of incompressible flow over airfoils

    2. Compressible Flow

    • Basics of compressible flow, shock waves
    • Isentropic flow, normal and oblique shocks, Prandtl-Meyer expansion
    • Subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic regimes

    3. Thin Airfoil Theory

    • Lift and moment calculations for thin airfoils
    • Symmetrical and cambered airfoil characteristics

    4. Finite Wing Aerodynamics

    • Downwash, induced drag, and aspect ratio considerations
    • Biot-Savart law and vortex theory
    • Lift distribution over finite wings

    5. High Lift Devices

    • Flaps, slats, and leading-edge extensions
    • Aerodynamics of takeoff and landing configurations

    6. Drag Analysis

    • Breakdown of drag into its components
    • Methods for drag estimation in different flight regimes

    7. Boundary Layer Theory

    • Laminar and turbulent boundary layers
    • Transition, separation, and control of boundary layer
    • Boundary layer thickness and displacement thickness

    8. Aerodynamics of Bodies

    • Flow over cylinders, spheres, and other canonical shapes
    • Aerodynamics of aircraft fuselage, nacelles, and other non-wing components

    9. Transonic Aerodynamics

    • Critical Mach number, drag divergence
    • Area rule, supercritical airfoils, and transonic area ruling

    10. Supersonic Aerodynamics

    • Wave drag, shock-induced separation
    • Supersonic airfoil characteristics and delta wings

    11. Introduction to Hypersonic Flow

    • Characteristics of hypersonic flow, boundary layer interactions
    • Concept of shock layers and aerothermodynamics

    12. Wind Tunnel Testing

    • Principles and types of wind tunnels
    • Similarity and scaling laws
    • Measurement techniques in wind tunnels

    13. Computational Aerodynamics

    • Basics of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aerodynamic analysis
    • Mesh generation, boundary conditions, and solution methodologies
    • Validation and verification of computational results

    14. Aerodynamic Design and Optimization

    • Role of aerodynamics in aircraft design
    • Methods for aerodynamic shape optimization

    15. Special Topics (based on course and instructor preference)

    • V/STOL (Vertical/Short TakeOff and Landing) aircraft aerodynamics
    • Stealth technology and its aerodynamic implications
    • Recent advancements in aerodynamics research
  3. Aircraft Systems and Instruments
  4. 1. Introduction

    • Overview of aircraft systems and their significance
    • Role of instruments in flight safety and navigation

    2. Aircraft Powerplant Systems

    • Engine lubrication system: Principles, components, and functioning
    • Fuel system: Types of fuel systems, components, and fuel management
    • Cooling and exhaust systems

    3. Flight Control Systems

    • Primary control systems: ailerons, elevators, and rudders
    • Secondary control systems: flaps, slats, and spoilers
    • Fly-by-wire systems and hydraulic control systems

    4. Landing Gear Systems

    • Types of landing gears: tricycle, tailwheel, etc.
    • Retraction mechanisms, shock absorbers, and brakes
    • Steering systems and tire properties

    5. Aircraft Electrical Systems

    • AC and DC systems in aircraft
    • Generators, batteries, and distribution systems
    • Lighting systems: external and internal

    6. Environmental Control Systems (ECS)

    • Air conditioning and pressurization systems
    • Oxygen systems for crew and passengers
    • Heating, ventilation, and anti-icing systems

    7. Aircraft Navigation Systems

    • Basics of aircraft navigation
    • Magnetic compass, gyroscope-based instruments, and GPS
    • Modern avionics, including Glass Cockpit systems

    8. Flight Instruments

    • Airspeed indicators, altimeters, and vertical speed indicators
    • Attitude indicator, heading indicator, and turn coordinator
    • Pitot-static systems and associated errors

    9. Engine Instruments

    • Tachometers, temperature gauges, and oil pressure gauges
    • Fuel quantity and flow indicators
    • Engine health monitoring systems

    10. Avionics and Communication Systems

    • Basic radio communication and navigation systems
    • Transponders, DME, VOR, and ILS systems
    • Modern integrated avionics suites

    11. Emergency Systems

    • Emergency oxygen systems, escape slides, and rafts
    • Fire detection and suppression systems
    • Emergency locator transmitters (ELTs)

    12. Aircraft Autopilot and Flight Management Systems

    • Basics of autopilot: roll, pitch, and yaw control
    • Flight Director and Auto-throttle systems
    • Flight Management Systems (FMS) and their role in navigation and flight planning

    13. Instrument Landing System (ILS)

    • Components and functioning of ILS
    • Categories of ILS and their operational implications

    14. Radar and Weather Instruments

    • Basic principles of radar
    • Weather radar and its significance in flight safety
    • Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)

    15. Recent Advancements in Aircraft Systems

    • Introduction to Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and their specific systems
    • Innovations in cockpit instrumentation and human-machine interface
    • Health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS)
  5. Propulsion I
  6. 1. Introduction to Aircraft Propulsion

    • Overview of propulsion system types
    • Historical evolution of aircraft propulsion

    2. Basics of Thermodynamics for Propulsion

    • Review of thermodynamic principles
    • Brayton cycle and its application in jet engines

    3. Reciprocating Engines

    • Components and operation
    • Otto and Diesel cycles, performance parameters
    • Fuels and fuel metering systems

    4. Propellers

    • Propeller terminology and aerodynamics
    • Blade element theory
    • Propeller performance parameters and efficiencies
    • Fixed-pitch vs. variable-pitch propellers

    5. Gas Turbine Engines: Turbojets

    • Components: Compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, and nozzle
    • Operation and performance characteristics
    • Advantages and limitations

    6. Gas Turbine Engines: Turboprops

    • Basic principles and components
    • Advantages over pure turbojets
    • Performance characteristics

    7. Gas Turbine Engines: Turbofans

    • Bypass ratio and its significance
    • Components and performance
    • Advantages over turbojets

    8. Gas Turbine Engines: Turboshafts

    • Principle of operation and applications
    • Components and characteristics
    • Use in helicopters and other VTOL aircraft

    9. Ramjets and Pulsejets

    • Operation principle and components
    • Performance characteristics
    • Limitations and applications

    10. Combustion in Jet Engines

    • Combustion chambers: types and features
    • Combustion efficiency and stability

    11. Engine Inlets and Nozzles

    • Function and design considerations
    • Supersonic inlets and diffusers
    • Variable geometry nozzles

    12. Engine Cooling and Lubrication Systems

    • Cooling requirements and methods in different engine types
    • Lubrication principles and systems in jet engines

    13. Engine Starting and Ignition Systems

    • Engine start sequence and requirements
    • Ignition systems and components

    14. Jet Engine Performance Parameters

    • Thrust, specific fuel consumption, and efficiency
    • Engine performance in various flight conditions

    15. Environmental Impact of Propulsion Systems

    • Noise pollution and mitigation methods
    • Emissions and their impact

    16. Recent Advancements in Propulsion Technologies

    • Introduction to electric and hybrid propulsion
    • Innovations in engine materials and design for better efficiency
  7. Flight Dynamics I
  8. 1. Introduction to Flight Dynamics

    • Definitions and basic concepts
    • Overview of the axes systems: Body axes, wind axes, stability axes

    2. Atmosphere

    • International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) model
    • Altitude and its types: geometric, pressure, density, and temperature
    • Variation of atmospheric properties with altitude

    3. Basic Aerodynamics Review

    • Lift, drag, moment and their coefficients
    • Center of pressure and aerodynamic center

    4. Equations of Motion

    • Introduction to the six degrees of freedom
    • Euler's equations of motion and their simplified forms

    5. Aircraft Performance

    • Drag polar and thrust required vs. velocity plots
    • Climb and descent performance: Rates and angles
    • Range and endurance
    • Takeoff and landing performance

    6. Longitudinal Static Stability

    • Trimmed flight conditions
    • Static margin and neutral point
    • Stick-fixed and stick-free stability

    7. Lateral and Directional Static Stability

    • Dihedral effect, sweep effect, and contribution from various surfaces
    • Weathercock stability and directional static stability

    8. Aircraft Control Surfaces

    • Primary control surfaces: ailerons, rudders, elevators
    • Secondary control surfaces: flaps, slats, spoilers
    • Effectiveness and reversal of controls

    9. Aircraft Response to Control Inputs

    • Short period, phugoid, Dutch roll, spiral, and roll subsidence modes
    • Damping and natural frequency

    10. Flying and Handling Qualities

    • Cooper-Harper rating scale
    • Factors affecting handling qualities: control harmony, control forces, etc.

    11. Longitudinal Dynamic Stability

    • Pitching motion analysis
    • Response to step, impulse, and sinusoidal inputs

    12. Lateral and Directional Dynamic Stability

    • Rolling and yawing motion analyses
    • Rudder fixed and rudder free conditions

    13. Introduction to Stability Derivatives

    • Explanation of stability and control derivatives
    • How different derivatives influence aircraft behavior

    14. Aircraft Trim

    • Definition and importance of trim in flight dynamics
    • Methods for achieving trim in various flight conditions

    15. Stall and Spin

    • Definitions and characteristics
    • Phases of spin: entry, developed phase, recovery

    16. Introduction to Flight Simulation

    • Basics of flight simulators and their role in flight dynamics
    • Importance of flight dynamics in aircraft design and pilot training
  9. Aerospace Structures I
  10. 1. Introduction to Aerospace Structures

    • Historical evolution and importance of aerospace structures
    • Basic concepts: Loads, stresses, strains, and factors of safety

    2. Review of Materials

    • Common materials used in aerospace: aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, composites
    • Material properties: isotropy, anisotropy, homogeneity

    3. Stress and Strain

    • Definitions and types of stress: tensile, compressive, shear
    • Stress-strain diagrams and material properties
    • Hooke's law and Poisson's ratio

    4. Aerospace Loads

    • Types of loads: aerodynamic, inertial, ground, and thermal loads
    • Gust loads and maneuver loads
    • V-n diagrams

    5. Bending of Beams

    • Theory of simple bending
    • Bending moment and shear force diagrams
    • Flexural stresses and transverse shear stresses

    6. Torsion

    • Pure torsion in thin-walled closed and open sections
    • Shear flow and shear center
    • Warping and torsional stresses

    7. Thin-walled Pressure Vessels

    • Stresses in cylindrical and spherical pressure vessels
    • Application to fuselages and tanks

    8. Energy Methods

    • Strain energy and work done by external loads
    • Castigliano’s theorem
    • Application to deflection and stability problems

    9. Buckling of Columns

    • Euler's buckling load for pin-ended columns
    • Effect of end conditions
    • Slenderness ratio and its significance

    10. Aerospace Structural Components

    • Wings: spars, ribs, and skin
    • Fuselage: longerons, stringers, frames, and skin
    • Empennage and control surfaces

    11. Introduction to Aeroelasticity

    • Basics of aeroelastic phenomena: flutter, divergence, and control reversal
    • Importance in structural design

    12. Joint and Fasteners

    • Riveted, bolted, and bonded joints
    • Stress concentration and its effect on joint strength

    13. Structural Failures

    • Modes of failure: fatigue, creep, and corrosion
    • Non-destructive testing methods in aerospace

    14. Introduction to Composite Structures

    • Advantages and challenges of composites in aerospace
    • Basic layup and fabrication processes

    15. Case Studies

    • Review of historical aerospace structural failures and their implications
    • Modern advancements and innovations in structural design
  11. Propulsion Lab
  12. 1. Safety Protocols and Introduction

    • Laboratory safety, equipment handling, and standard procedures
    • Introduction to various lab equipment and tools

    2. Study of Reciprocating Engine Components

    • Identification and functionality of key components: cylinder, piston, crankshaft, etc.
    • Disassembly and reassembly procedures

    3. Study of Jet Engine Components

    • Identification of key components: compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, nozzle, etc.
    • Basic engine startup and shutdown procedures

    4. Performance Testing of Reciprocating Engines

    • Brake power, indicated power, frictional power measurement
    • Efficiency calculation

    5. Jet Engine Thrust Measurement

    • Static thrust measurements
    • Effect of various parameters on thrust generation

    6. Measurement of Fuel Flow Rate

    • Calibration and use of flow meters
    • Measurements under different operating conditions

    7. Combustion Analysis

    • Flame temperature measurement
    • Emission analysis for CO, CO2, NOx, and unburned hydrocarbons

    8. Measurement of Compressor Performance

    • Compressor map generation
    • Efficiency and pressure ratio calculations

    9. Turbine Performance Analysis

    • Measurement of turbine inlet and outlet temperatures
    • Turbine efficiency calculation

    10. Propeller Performance Testing (If Applicable)

    • Thrust vs. RPM characteristics
    • Propeller efficiency determination

    11. Visualization of Flow Patterns

    • Use of smoke or dye injection systems
    • Visualization of boundary layer, shock waves, and other flow features in nozzles or around propulsion systems

    12. Noise Measurement and Analysis

    • Using sound level meters to measure engine noise at various operating conditions
    • Analyzing the effect of various parameters on noise levels

    13. Vibration Analysis

    • Measurement of engine vibrations using accelerometers
    • Identification of resonance conditions

    14. Engine Maintenance Procedures

    • Cleaning and inspection techniques
    • Introduction to non-destructive testing methods

    15. Case Studies

    • Analysis of real-life incidents related to engine failures or malfunctions
    • Problem-solving and troubleshooting exercises
  13. Aerodynamics Lab
  14. 1. Safety Protocols and Lab Introduction

    • Overview of laboratory safety rules and equipment handling.
    • Introduction to wind tunnels, their types, and components.

    2. Basic Flow Visualization Techniques

    • Using smoke or dye injection methods to visualize flow over various objects.
    • Introduction to tuft testing.

    3. Lift and Drag Measurement

    • Determining lift and drag forces on different airfoil shapes.
    • Using balance systems to measure forces and moments.

    4. Pressure Distribution over Airfoils

    • Usage of pressure taps or pressure belts.
    • Mapping of pressure coefficients over the surface of airfoils.

    5. Boundary Layer Measurements

    • Introduction to boundary layers and their importance.
    • Using Pitot tubes and hot-wire anemometry to measure boundary layer profiles.

    6. Flow over Bluff Bodies

    • Visualization and measurement of flow characteristics around bluff bodies like cylinders or spheres.
    • Observing phenomena such as vortex shedding.

    7. Study of Wingtip Vortices

    • Visualization of wingtip vortices using smoke-wire techniques.
    • Understanding the effects of aspect ratio on vortex strength.

    8. Wind Tunnel Calibration

    • Determining the speed profile of the wind tunnel across its test section.
    • Calibration of instruments such as manometers, anemometers, and force balances.

    9. Aeroelastic Demonstrations

    • Observing flutter, divergence, or control reversal on simple wing models.
    • Understanding the relationship between aerodynamic loads and structural behavior.

    10. Measurement of Stall and Post-stall Behavior

    • Investigating the stalling characteristics of different airfoils.
    • Understanding the effects of leading-edge devices or winglets on stall behavior.

    11. Flow Visualization over Aircraft Configurations

    • Analyzing flow characteristics over scaled aircraft models.
    • Studying effects of control surface deflections on flow behavior.

    12. Shock Wave Visualization (if supersonic facilities are available)

    • Observing shock patterns over various objects in a supersonic flow.
    • Measurement of shock angles and understanding the Mach wave diagram.

    13. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    • Basic CFD simulations of simple flows.
    • Comparing experimental results with computational predictions.

    14. Analysis of Turbulent Flows

    • Using hot-wire anemometry or laser Doppler velocimetry to measure turbulent flow characteristics.
    • Understanding turbulence scales and spectra.

    15. Final Project or Case Study

    • Designing and conducting an experiment or analysis based on topics covered.
    • Presentation of findings to peers and faculty.

Semester 5:

  1. Control Engineering
  2. 1. Introduction to Control Systems

    • Basics of control systems
    • Open-loop vs. closed-loop systems
    • Historical development and examples of control systems in aviation

    2. Mathematical Modeling of Physical Systems

    • Electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic system modeling
    • Differential equations of physical systems

    3. Transfer Function and System Response

    • Definition and properties of transfer functions
    • Time response analysis: transient and steady-state responses
    • Performance specifications

    4. Feedback Control System Characteristics

    • Sensitivity, bandwidth, and disturbance rejection
    • Benefits of feedback in control systems

    5. Stability Analysis

    • Concept of stability
    • Routh-Hurwitz criterion
    • Root locus techniques

    6. Frequency Response Analysis

    • Bode plots, Nyquist plots, and polar plots
    • Frequency domain specifications
    • Concepts of gain and phase margin

    7. Control Systems Components

    • Servomotors, synchros, tachometers, and gyroscopes
    • Introduction to actuators and sensors used in aviation

    8. Design and Compensation of Control Systems

    • PD, PI, and PID controllers
    • Lead, lag, and lead-lag compensators
    • Control system design using root locus and frequency response methods

    9. State-Space Analysis

    • State variables and state-space representation of systems
    • Solution of state equations
    • Controllability and observability

    10. Control Systems in Aviation

    • Basics of aircraft control: roll, pitch, yaw
    • Stability augmentation systems
    • Fly-by-wire systems

    11. Digital Control Systems

    • Sampling, z-transforms, and discrete-time systems
    • Stability analysis of digital control systems

    12. Nonlinear Control Systems

    • Introduction to non-linearities in physical systems
    • Describing function analysis
    • Phase-plane analysis

    13. Control System Simulation Tools

    • Introduction to software like MATLAB and Simulink
    • Basics of control system simulation and analysis

    14. Advanced Topics (if covered)

    • Introduction to robust control, optimal control, and adaptive control
    • Applications in modern aeronautical systems

    15. Case Studies

    • Analysis of real-life incidents related to control system failures or challenges
    • Modern advancements in control systems for aircraft and rockets
  3. Aerospace Structures II
  4. 1. Review of Aerospace Structures I

    • Basics of stress, strain, and structural behavior
    • Fundamental aircraft structural components

    2. Energy Methods in Structural Analysis

    • Strain energy and complementary energy
    • Castigliano's theorems
    • Rayleigh-Ritz method

    3. Buckling Analysis

    • Buckling of columns
    • Euler's formula
    • Effects of end conditions
    • Inelastic and lateral-torsional buckling

    4. Analysis of Thin-Walled Beams

    • Open, closed, and built-up sections
    • Shear center
    • Bending and torsion of thin-walled beams

    5. Aircraft Wing Structural Analysis

    • Wing spars and ribs
    • Aeroelasticity: divergence, aileron reversal, and flutter
    • Wing loading and resultant stresses

    6. Structural Instability

    • Panel buckling under compression and shear loads
    • Stringer-panel interaction
    • Wrinkling of skin panels

    7. Aircraft Fuselage Analysis

    • Pressurized and unpressurized fuselage sections
    • Fuselage frames and longerons
    • Fuselage stress patterns and distributions

    8. Composite Materials in Aerospace Structures

    • Basics of composite materials and their advantages
    • Laminate theory
    • Analysis and design of composite structures

    9. Structural Joints and Fasteners

    • Riveted, bolted, and bonded joints
    • Analysis of load distribution in fasteners
    • Stress concentrations

    10. Aircraft Landing Gear Structural Design

    • Shock absorbing mechanisms
    • Landing gear loads and stress analysis

    11. Finite Element Method in Structural Analysis

    • Introduction to the finite element method (FEM)
    • Application in aerospace structural problems
    • Basics of meshing and boundary conditions

    12. Fatigue and Fracture in Aerospace Structures

    • Basics of fatigue and fracture mechanisms
    • S-N curves and endurance limits
    • Damage tolerance and fail-safe design

    13. Aerospace Structural Testing and Validation

    • Principles of experimental stress analysis
    • Strain gauges and photoelasticity
    • Full-scale and component testing

    14. Case Studies and Structural Failures

    • Investigation and analysis of real-life aerospace structural failures
    • Lessons learned and design improvements

    15. Emerging Topics in Aerospace Structures

    • Introduction to smart structures and materials
    • Morphing wings and adaptive structures
    • Recent research and advancements
  5. Propulsion II
  6. 1. Review of Propulsion I Concepts

    • Basics of propulsion systems
    • Thermodynamic cycles and performance parameters

    2. Air-breathing Propulsion Systems

    • Turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and turboshaft engines
    • Ramjets and scramjets
    • Engine performance analysis

    3. Gas Turbine Combustion Chambers

    • Types of combustion chambers
    • Combustion processes and efficiency
    • Cooling and temperature distribution

    4. Axial and Centrifugal Compressors

    • Compressor performance and characteristics
    • Surging and stalling
    • Design considerations

    5. Axial and Radial Turbines

    • Turbine blade design and cooling methods
    • Performance and efficiency considerations
    • Mechanical aspects of turbines

    6. Nozzles and Afterburners

    • Convergent, divergent, and variable geometry nozzles
    • Operation and purpose of afterburners
    • Thrust vectoring concepts

    7. Rocket Propulsion

    • Chemical rockets: solid and liquid propellant rockets
    • Rocket thermodynamics and performance
    • Electric and nuclear propulsion concepts

    8. Propellants and Combustion

    • Characteristics of aviation fuels
    • Solid propellant composition and performance
    • Liquid propellant systems and their components

    9. Engine Intakes and Inlets

    • Subsonic, supersonic, and variable geometry intakes
    • Performance, drag, and distortion considerations
    • Ram compression in supersonic intakes

    10. Engine Starting and Ignition Systems

    • Starters and starting sequences
    • Ignition systems and spark plugs
    • Safety and redundancy in ignition systems

    11. Engine Cooling and Lubrication

    • Oil and air cooling systems
    • Lubricants and lubrication systems
    • Engine bearing systems

    12. Propulsion System Integration and Installation

    • Engine mounts, thrust reversers, and noise suppressors
    • Engine-airframe compatibility
    • Impact on aircraft performance

    13. Environmental Concerns and Propulsion

    • Emissions and their impact
    • Noise pollution and mitigation techniques
    • Future trends in eco-friendly propulsion

    14. Advanced Propulsion Concepts

    • Hypersonic propulsion
    • Hybrid engines
    • Propulsion for spaceplanes

    15. Case Studies and Current Research

    • Analysis of notable propulsion system failures or challenges
    • Innovations and research in modern propulsion systems
  7. Flight Dynamics II
  8. 1. Review of Flight Dynamics I

    • Basic definitions: Degrees of freedom, static and dynamic stability
    • Aircraft axes and motion description
    • Basic aerodynamic concepts relevant to flight dynamics

    2. Longitudinal Static Stability

    • Concept of neutral point and static margin
    • Stick-fixed and stick-free stability
    • Control force requirements and trim

    3. Lateral and Directional Static Stability

    • Yawing and rolling moments due to side-slip
    • Weathercock stability
    • Dihedral effect and its implications on stability

    4. Dynamic Stability

    • Aircraft equations of motion
    • Longitudinal modes: Phugoid and short period
    • Lateral modes: Dutch roll, roll, and spiral

    5. Aircraft Control Surfaces

    • Primary and secondary control surfaces
    • Aerodynamic balancing
    • Effectiveness and control forces

    6. Aircraft Response to Control Inputs

    • Response to aileron, elevator, and rudder deflections
    • Dynamic overshoot, period, and damping

    7. Aircraft Response to Atmospheric Disturbances

    • Response to gusts and turbulence
    • Ride comfort criteria

    8. Flight in Turbulence

    • Dry and moist atmospheric convection
    • Vortex wakes and jet wash effects

    9. Automatic Flight Control Systems

    • Introduction to autopilots
    • Basic feedback concepts in control systems
    • Stability augmentation systems

    10. Stability Derivatives

    • Importance in flight dynamics
    • Estimation and measurement techniques

    11. Maneuverability

    • Turn rate and load factor
    • V-n diagrams and aircraft operating envelopes

    12. High Angle of Attack Flight Dynamics

    • Stall and post-stall behavior
    • Deep stall and spin characteristics

    13. Helicopter Flight Dynamics

    • Hovering, forward flight, and autorotation
    • Stability and control challenges in rotary-wing aircraft

    14. Introduction to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics

    • Differences from subsonic and supersonic flight
    • Stability and control considerations

    15. Case Studies

    • Analysis of aircraft accidents/incidents due to flight dynamics issues
    • Recent advancements and innovations in flight dynamics
  9. Aircraft Design I
  10. 1. Introduction to Aircraft Design

    • Evolution and history of aircraft design
    • Design philosophy and criteria
    • Different classes of aircraft and their roles

    2. Design Process

    • Conceptual, preliminary, and detailed design phases
    • Design development: From mission profile to final layout

    3. Aircraft Configuration

    • Selection of wing, tail, and body configurations
    • High-wing vs. low-wing designs, single vs. twin-engine considerations

    4. Initial Sizing

    • Estimation of weight and thrust requirements based on mission profile
    • Aspect ratio, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio

    5. Aerodynamic Considerations

    • Lift, drag, and stability considerations in design
    • Wing and airfoil selection based on aerodynamic efficiency

    6. Structural Design and Materials

    • Material selection based on strength, weight, and cost
    • Introduction to load factors and structural analysis

    7. Propulsion System Design

    • Selection and placement of engines
    • Trade-offs between different types of propulsion systems

    8. Landing Gear Design

    • Design considerations for tricycle, tailwheel, and tandem configurations
    • Retractable vs. fixed landing gear

    9. Cockpit and Cabin Layout

    • Ergonomics and safety considerations
    • Instrumentation, avionics, and control layouts

    10. Payload and Storage Considerations

    • Payload capacity vs. range trade-offs
    • Cargo holds, equipment bays, and passenger accommodations

    11. Performance Analysis

    • Estimating take-off, climb, cruise, and landing performance
    • Range, endurance, and payload capability analysis

    12. Safety and Regulatory Considerations

    • Adherence to aviation standards and regulations
    • Crashworthiness and emergency systems

    13. Economic Analysis in Design

    • Life cycle cost analysis
    • Trade-offs between initial cost, operating cost, and performance

    14. Environmental and Sustainability Considerations

    • Noise pollution, emissions, and their impacts
    • Designing for reduced environmental footprint

    15. Current Trends and Innovations

    • Electric and hybrid aircraft design
    • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and their design considerations
    • Sustainable materials and practices in modern aircraft design

    16. Case Studies

    • Analysis of iconic aircraft designs
    • Lessons learned from past design successes and failures
  11. Control Engineering Lab
  12. 1. Introduction to Control Engineering Lab Equipment

    • Familiarization with test benches, data acquisition systems, control modules, and software tools.

    2. Time Response Analysis

    • Study of first and second-order system responses.
    • Observation and measurement of time constants, overshoot, settling time, etc.

    3. Frequency Response Analysis

    • Generation and interpretation of Bode plots, Nyquist plots, and polar plots.
    • Determination of bandwidth, phase margin, and gain margin.

    4. Controller Design and Analysis

    • Implementing and testing P, PI, PD, and PID controllers.
    • Observation of controller effects on system performance.

    5. Stability Analysis

    • Use of Routh-Hurwitz criterion.
    • Construction and interpretation of root locus plots.

    6. Compensator Design

    • Design of lead, lag, and lead-lag compensators.
    • Analysis of compensator effects on system performance.

    7. Control System Design Software

    • Introduction to software tools like MATLAB, Simulink, or LabVIEW.
    • Simulation and analysis of control systems using software.

    8. Digital Control Systems

    • Sampling and Z-transforms.
    • Design and testing of digital controllers.

    9. State-Space Analysis

    • State variable representation of systems.
    • Observability and controllability tests.

    10. Aircraft Control System Simulation

    • Simulated experiments on aircraft pitch, roll, and yaw control systems.
    • Analysis of aircraft stability and response to control inputs.

    11. Non-Linear Control Systems

    • Analysis of systems with non-linearities.
    • Introduction to techniques like describing functions.

    12. Real-World Control System Implementation

    • Hands-on exercises with actual control hardware, sensors, and actuators.
    • Case studies and troubleshooting exercises.

    13. Control System Noise Analysis

    • Introduction to noise in control systems.
    • Filtering techniques and noise reduction methods.

    14. Project Work

    • Design and implementation of a small control system project.
    • Documentation, presentation, and defense of the project work.

    15. Laboratory Safety and Best Practices

    • Safe use of lab equipment.
    • Documentation and recording of experimental data.
  13. Aircraft Design Lab
  14. 1. Introduction to Aircraft Design Tools

    • Familiarization with CAD software like CATIA, SolidWorks, or AutoCAD specific for aeronautics.
    • Introduction to aircraft design simulation tools like X-Plane or ANSYS Fluent.

    2. Aircraft Configuration and Layout

    • Sketching and CAD modeling of different aircraft configurations.
    • Estimation of basic dimensions and parameters from the design.

    3. Aerodynamic Analysis

    • Basic wind tunnel testing and interpretation of results.
    • Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for analyzing aerodynamic properties.

    4. Weight Estimation

    • Methods to estimate aircraft weight based on design parameters.
    • Weight breakdown and distribution analysis.

    5. Propulsion System Integration

    • CAD modeling of engine and propulsion systems.
    • Integration of propulsion systems into the aircraft design.

    6. Landing Gear Design and Analysis

    • Design of various landing gear configurations.
    • Stress and load analysis on landing gear components.

    7. Cockpit and Cabin Design

    • Ergonomic design of the cockpit using CAD tools.
    • Cabin layout and passenger comfort considerations.

    8. Performance Analysis

    • Using software tools to estimate take-off, cruise, and landing performance.
    • Range, endurance, and flight envelope simulations.

    9. Stability and Control Analysis

    • Determination of aircraft's center of gravity (CG) and its influence on stability.
    • Control surface sizing and effectiveness analysis.

    10. Structural Analysis

    • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of critical aircraft components.
    • Load distribution and stress analysis of wings, fuselage, and tail sections.

    11. Payload and Storage Considerations

    • Design considerations for cargo holds and equipment storage.
    • Integration of payload systems into the aircraft design.

    12. Cost and Economic Analysis

    • Using software tools to perform basic economic feasibility studies.
    • Life cycle cost estimation based on design choices.

    13. Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    • Assessment of the environmental impact of design choices.
    • Exploration of sustainable materials and eco-friendly design alternatives.

    14. Group Projects

    • Design of a specific class of aircraft (e.g., UAV, glider, commercial jet) in groups.
    • Presentation and critique of design projects.

    15. Report Writing and Documentation

    • Proper documentation techniques for design projects.
    • Writing detailed lab reports summarizing findings and analyses.

Semester 6:

  1. Avionics
  2. 1. Introduction to Avionics

    • Definition and evolution of avionics
    • Importance and role of avionics in modern aircraft

    2. Fundamental Avionic Systems

    • Communication systems: VHF, UHF, HF radios, and satellite communications
    • Navigation systems: VOR, ILS, ADF, GPS
    • Surveillance systems: Radar, weather radar, TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System), TAWS (Terrain Awareness Warning System)

    3. Flight Control Systems

    • Autopilot systems: functionality and components
    • Fly-by-wire and fly-by-light systems
    • Flight management systems (FMS)

    4. Aircraft Sensors and Instruments

    • Air data sensors: Pitot-static systems, temperature sensors
    • Gyroscopic instruments: Attitude, heading, and turn indicators
    • Engine and fuel monitoring systems

    5. Aircraft Display Systems

    • Analog vs. digital instrument panels
    • Primary Flight Display (PFD) and Multi-Function Display (MFD)
    • Head-Up Displays (HUD) and Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    6. Aircraft Power and Distribution Systems

    • Basics of aircraft electrical systems
    • Power distribution, circuit protection, and grounding

    7. Onboard Maintenance Systems (OMS) and Health Monitoring

    • System diagnostics and prognostics
    • Structural health monitoring

    8. Air Traffic Management and Control Systems

    • ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast)
    • ATC radar systems
    • Future Air Navigation System (FANS)

    9. Aircraft Lighting Systems

    • Internal and external lighting
    • Navigation lights, landing lights, and anti-collision lights

    10. Emergency Avionic Systems

    • Emergency locator transmitters (ELT)
    • Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) and Flight Data Recorder (FDR)

    11. Avionics Integration and Architecture

    • Data buses: ARINC 429, ARINC 629, MIL-STD-1553
    • Modular avionic architectures
    • Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)

    12. Avionics Testing and Certification

    • Importance of reliability and safety in avionics
    • Regulatory requirements: FAA, EASA standards
    • DO-178B/C, DO-254 software and hardware considerations

    13. Avionics in UAVs and Drones

    • Drone control systems and telemetry
    • Collision avoidance for unmanned systems

    14. Current Trends and Future Technologies

    • Glass cockpit advancements
    • Challenges and innovations in cybersecurity for avionics
    • Quantum avionics and other emerging technologies

    15. Case Studies

    • Analysis of avionic advancements in iconic aircraft
    • Lessons from avionic-related incidents and accidents
  3. Wind Tunnel Techniques
  4. 1. Introduction to Wind Tunnels

    • History and importance of wind tunnel testing in aeronautics
    • Different types of wind tunnels: subsonic, transonic, supersonic, hypersonic

    2. Wind Tunnel Components

    • Test section types and their characteristics
    • Drive systems: open circuit, closed circuit
    • Settling chambers, contraction cones, diffusers, and fan systems

    3. Wind Tunnel Instrumentation

    • Introduction to various instrumentation techniques
    • Pressure measurement: manometers, pressure transducers
    • Temperature and density measurement instruments

    4. Flow Visualization Techniques

    • Smoke and tuft methods
    • Oil flow visualization
    • Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques

    5. Aerodynamic Force and Moment Measurements

    • Introduction to force balance systems
    • External and internal balances
    • Measurement of lift, drag, pitch, yaw, and roll

    6. Non-Intrusive Measurement Techniques

    • Hot-wire anemometry
    • Particle image velocimetry (PIV)
    • Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA)

    7. Corrections in Wind Tunnel Testing

    • Wall interference corrections
    • Blockage corrections
    • Solid and wake blockage corrections

    8. Aeroelastic Testing

    • Understanding aeroelastic phenomena: flutter, divergence
    • Aeroelastic model design and testing procedures
    • Dynamic similarity and model scaling for aeroelastic tests

    9. Specialized Wind Tunnels

    • Cryogenic wind tunnels
    • Spin tunnels for spin recovery analysis
    • Pressure tunnels and water tunnels

    10. Model Design and Scaling

    • Geometric, kinematic, and dynamic similarity
    • Scale effect considerations and Reynolds number matching

    11. Test Planning and Execution

    • Defining test objectives and parameters
    • Test execution, data acquisition, and post-processing

    12. Uncertainty Analysis

    • Identifying sources of uncertainty in measurements
    • Methods for estimating and reducing uncertainties

    13. Wind Tunnel Data Presentation and Analysis

    • Graphical representation of aerodynamic coefficients
    • Polar plots, drag-divergence, and buffet boundary representations

    14. Current Trends in Wind Tunnel Testing

    • Introduction to computational techniques complementing wind tunnel tests
    • Innovations in wind tunnel design and testing methods

    15. Case Studies

    • In-depth study of historically significant wind tunnel tests
    • Comparative analysis between wind tunnel results and real-world observations
  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
  6. 1. Introduction to CFD

    • Definition and overview of CFD
    • Historical development of CFD
    • Applications of CFD in aerospace engineering

    2. Mathematical Foundations

    • Classification of partial differential equations (PDEs)
    • Governing equations for fluid dynamics: Navier-Stokes, Euler, etc.
    • Initial and boundary conditions

    3. Numerical Discretization

    • Finite difference method
    • Finite volume method
    • Finite element method

    4. Grid Generation

    • Structured and unstructured grids
    • Grid quality and refinement
    • Grid generation techniques: algebraic, elliptic, and hyperbolic methods

    5. Time Integration Methods

    • Explicit and implicit time-marching schemes
    • Steady-state solution methods

    6. Solution Algorithms

    • SIMPLE, SIMPLER, and PISO algorithms for incompressible flows
    • Algorithms for compressible flows

    7. Turbulence Modeling

    • Basics of turbulent flows
    • Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations
    • Turbulence models: k-epsilon, k-omega, Spalart-Allmaras, Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS)

    8. Boundary Conditions

    • Specification of boundary conditions for different flow situations
    • Treatment of wall functions
    • Inlet, outlet, symmetry, and periodic boundaries

    9. Solver and Convergence Parameters

    • Relaxation factors and under-relaxation
    • Convergence monitoring and criteria
    • Error analysis

    10. Post-Processing and Visualization

    • Visualization tools and software
    • Interpretation of results: contour plots, streamlines, vorticity, etc.
    • Aeroacoustic predictions

    11. CFD Applications in Aerospace

    • Airfoil and wing simulations
    • Combustion modeling in jet engines
    • Full aircraft simulations

    12. Verification and Validation

    • Ensuring accuracy and reliability in CFD simulations
    • Grid and solution independence studies
    • Comparison with experimental and other benchmark data

    13. Current Trends and Advanced Topics

    • High-performance computing in CFD
    • Coupling CFD with other computational tools (e.g., structural analysis)
    • Handling of multi-phase flows

    14. Hands-On Experience with CFD Software

    • Introduction to popular CFD software: ANSYS Fluent, CFX, OpenFOAM, etc.
    • Geometry creation, meshing, solving, and post-processing exercises
    • Case studies based on real-world aeronautical challenges

    15. Challenges and Limitations of CFD

    • Understanding the limitations of current CFD methods
    • Areas of ongoing research and future prospects in CFD
  7. Aircraft Design II
  8. 1. Recap of Aircraft Design I

    • Brief review of aircraft design process
    • Major milestones in aircraft design
    • Fundamentals of aircraft configuration

    2. Aircraft Loading

    • Estimation of various loads: aerodynamic, inertial, ground, and maneuvering loads
    • Load factors and gust loading
    • Structural design envelopes

    3. Aircraft Performance Analysis

    • Range and endurance calculations
    • Take-off and landing performance
    • Climb and descent profiles

    4. Aircraft Stability and Control

    • Longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability considerations
    • Control surface sizing and design
    • Handling qualities and requirements

    5. Aircraft Weight Estimation

    • Empty weight breakdown
    • Fuel weight considerations
    • Payload-carrying capacity

    6. Aircraft Cost Analysis

    • Direct and indirect operating costs
    • Life cycle cost analysis
    • Economic considerations in design

    7. Design for Specialized Aircraft Types

    • Transport and commercial aircraft
    • Fighter and military aircraft
    • UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) and drones

    8. Aircraft Systems Integration

    • Avionics and control systems integration
    • Landing gear design and integration
    • Environmental and life support systems

    9. Propulsion Integration

    • Engine type selection
    • Engine placement considerations
    • Propulsion system performance analysis

    10. Aerodynamic Refinements

    • High-lift devices
    • Drag reduction techniques
    • Advanced aerodynamic configurations

    11. Aircraft Materials and Structural Design

    • Advanced materials in aviation: composites, ceramics, etc.
    • Structural load paths and stress analysis
    • Fatigue and damage tolerance considerations

    12. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO)

    • Introduction to MDO concepts
    • Design trade-offs and multi-objective optimization
    • Computational tools and software for MDO

    13. Safety, Reliability, and Certification

    • Safety assessment: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
    • Reliability prediction
    • Certification requirements and processes

    14. Case Studies

    • In-depth analysis of iconic aircraft designs
    • Lessons from design challenges and failures

    15. Group Design Project

    • A capstone project where students conceptualize, design, and present an aircraft, incorporating lessons learned throughout the course
  9. Aircraft Maintenance and Repair
  10. 1. Introduction to Aircraft Maintenance

    • Importance of aircraft maintenance
    • Overview of aircraft maintenance activities
    • Categories of maintenance: preventive, corrective, and predictive

    2. Aircraft Maintenance Documentation

    • Maintenance manuals
    • Aircraft logbooks and record-keeping
    • Service bulletins and airworthiness directives

    3. Maintenance Planning and Scheduling

    • Principles of maintenance planning
    • Maintenance checks: A, B, C, and D checks
    • Role of the Maintenance Steering Group (MSG)

    4. Aircraft Inspection Techniques

    • Visual inspections
    • Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods: ultrasonic, radiographic, eddy current, magnetic particle inspection, etc.
    • Borescope inspections

    5. Structural Repairs

    • Common structural defects and their causes
    • Repair techniques for metal and composite structures
    • Patch repairs, riveting, and bonding

    6. Engine Maintenance and Repair

    • Overview of jet engine and piston engine maintenance
    • Engine inspection techniques
    • Engine performance tests and troubleshooting

    7. Aircraft Systems Maintenance

    • Maintenance of hydraulic and pneumatic systems
    • Avionic system maintenance and troubleshooting
    • Environmental control system (ECS) maintenance

    8. Landing Gear Maintenance

    • Inspection and repair of landing gear components
    • Wheel and brake maintenance
    • Shock strut servicing

    9. Corrosion Control

    • Types and causes of corrosion in aircraft
    • Corrosion prevention methods
    • Corrosion inspection and repair

    10. Aircraft Modifications

    • Reasons for aircraft modifications
    • Structural and system modifications
    • Regulatory considerations for modifications

    11. Human Factors in Maintenance

    • Importance of human factors
    • Common human errors in maintenance
    • Strategies to mitigate human errors

    12. Safety in Maintenance Activities

    • Safety guidelines and best practices
    • Handling of hazardous materials
    • Emergency response and fire safety

    13. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    • Introduction to RCM principles
    • RCM process and analysis
    • Implementation of RCM in aviation

    14. Maintenance of Aircraft Interiors

    • Cabin maintenance and refurbishment
    • Seat and interior component repairs
    • In-flight entertainment system maintenance

    15. Current Trends in Aircraft Maintenance

    • Introduction to predictive maintenance
    • Digital tools and software in maintenance
    • The role of big data and analytics in aircraft maintenance

    16. Case Studies

    • Analysis of real-world maintenance challenges
    • Lessons from maintenance-related incidents and accidents
  11. Avionics Lab
  12. 1. Introduction to Avionic Systems

    • Familiarization with basic avionic tools and test equipment
    • Overview of avionic systems in modern aircraft

    2. Communication Systems

    • Hands-on with aircraft communication systems: VHF, HF, and satellite communication systems
    • Troubleshooting communication system issues

    3. Navigation Systems

    • Working with navigation aids: VOR, ILS, ADF, and GPS systems
    • Calibration and testing of navigation systems

    4. Radar Systems and Transponders

    • Introduction to primary and secondary radar systems
    • Experiments with weather radars and transponders
    • Troubleshooting common radar issues

    5. Flight Control and Autopilot Systems

    • Familiarization with flight control computers
    • Testing and calibrating autopilot systems
    • Integration of flight control with other avionic systems

    6. Aircraft Display Systems

    • Hands-on with Heads-Up Displays (HUD) and Multi-Function Displays (MFD)
    • Calibration and testing of display systems

    7. Engine Control Systems

    • Introduction to FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control)
    • Troubleshooting engine control avionics

    8. Flight Data Recorders and Cockpit Voice Recorders

    • Understanding the importance of black boxes
    • Retrieving and analyzing data from FDR and CVR

    9. Aircraft Warning and Alert Systems

    • Hands-on with Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS) and Ground Proximity Warning Systems (GPWS)
    • Calibration and testing of warning systems

    10. Electrical and Lighting Systems

    • Understanding aircraft electrical systems and circuits
    • Hands-on experiments with aircraft lighting systems: internal and external

    11. Avionics Integration and Data Buses

    • Familiarization with data bus technologies: ARINC 429, MIL-STD-1553, etc.
    • Understanding how various avionic systems communicate and integrate

    12. Simulation and Avionic Software

    • Hands-on with flight simulators
    • Understanding the role of software in avionics and basic software troubleshooting

    13. Maintenance and Troubleshooting

    • Standard procedures for avionic system maintenance
    • Practical sessions on troubleshooting common avionic issues

    14. Safety and EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility)

    • Understanding the importance of EMC in avionics
    • Testing avionic systems for electromagnetic interference

    15. Project Work

    • Group projects focused on troubleshooting, integrating, or designing simple avionic systems
  13. Wind Tunnel Lab
  14. 1. Introduction to Wind Tunnels

    • Overview of different types of wind tunnels: subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic
    • Wind tunnel components: settling chamber, test section, diffuser, and fans

    2. Basic Aerodynamic Experiments

    • Flow visualization around simple shapes (e.g., cylinders, spheres, aerofoils)
    • Use of smoke or dye to visualize streamlines

    3. Boundary Layer Studies

    • Measurement of boundary layer thickness
    • Visualization of laminar to turbulent transition
    • Effects of surface roughness on boundary layer

    4. Pressure Distribution Measurement

    • Pressure distribution over aerofoil sections
    • Use of multi-tube manometers or electronic pressure sensors

    5. Lift and Drag Measurements

    • Force balance experiments to measure lift and drag on various models
    • Plotting lift coefficient vs. angle of attack for different aerofoils

    6. Flow Visualization Techniques

    • Use of oil flow patterns
    • Introduction to laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry

    7. Stall and Flow Separation Studies

    • Observing the stall phenomenon in different aerofoil sections
    • Analysis of post-stall behavior and vortex shedding

    8. Shock Wave Studies (for supersonic wind tunnels)

    • Visualization of shock waves around models
    • Measurement of shock wave angles and analysis

    9. Cascade Tunnel Experiments

    • Study of flow through compressor and turbine blade cascades
    • Pressure and velocity distribution measurements

    10. Wind Tunnel Calibration

    • Calibration of wind tunnel speed
    • Introduction to hot-wire anemometry for velocity measurements

    11. Model Mounting and Similarity Rules

    • Techniques for mounting models in wind tunnels
    • Understanding and applying similarity and scaling rules

    12. Flow Over Bluff Bodies

    • Flow visualization around bluff bodies like buildings, vehicles, etc.
    • Vortex shedding and wake analysis

    13. Propeller Performance Tests

    • Measuring propeller characteristics: thrust, power, and efficiency
    • Analyzing propeller performance curves

    14. Data Acquisition and Analysis

    • Use of computerized data acquisition systems
    • Post-processing and analysis of wind tunnel data

    15. Group Projects

    • Design and execution of wind tunnel tests for specific research objectives or design challenges

Semester 7:

  1. Helicopter Dynamics
  2. 1. Introduction to Helicopter Aerodynamics

    • Historical development of helicopters
    • Configuration and main components of a helicopter: main rotor, tail rotor, fuselage, etc.
    • Basic principles of helicopter flight

    2. Fundamentals of Rotor Aerodynamics

    • Blade element theory
    • Hovering and vertical flight
    • Forward flight: advancing and retreating blade concepts
    • Flapping and feathering

    3. Rotor Airfoil Aerodynamics

    • Airfoil sections used in rotor blades
    • Aerodynamic characteristics specific to rotor airfoils
    • Dynamic stall and its implications

    4. Helicopter Performance

    • Hovering ceiling, forward flight performance
    • Power required and power available curves
    • Range, endurance, and limitations

    5. Helicopter Stability and Control

    • Control systems: cyclic, collective, and anti-torque pedals
    • Trim conditions in hover and forward flight
    • Static and dynamic stability characteristics

    6. Rotor Vibrations and Dynamics

    • Sources of vibration in helicopters
    • Effects of vibration on structural integrity and pilot fatigue
    • Methods to dampen and reduce vibrations

    7. Ground Resonance and Blade Lead-Lag Dynamics

    • Phenomenon of ground resonance
    • Causes and prevention
    • Blade lead-lag motion and its effects

    8. Autorotation and Emergency Procedures

    • Principles of autorotation
    • Glide ratios and landing techniques
    • Engine failures and emergency landings

    9. Helicopter Acoustics

    • Sources of noise in helicopters: blade-vortex interaction, broadband noise, etc.
    • Methods for noise reduction
    • Impact of noise on environment and communities

    10. Advanced Rotor Systems

    • Tandem, coaxial, and intermeshing rotors
    • Tip-jet rotors and NOTAR (No Tail Rotor) systems
    • Tiltrotor and compound helicopters

    11. Helicopter Structural Dynamics

    • Materials and construction of rotor blades and fuselage
    • Load distribution on helicopter structures
    • Fatigue and damage tolerance considerations

    12. Helicopter Flight Testing

    • Methods for flight testing and data collection
    • Handling qualities and pilot-vehicle interaction
    • Certification processes

    13. Advanced Topics in Helicopter Dynamics

    • Computational methods for rotor aerodynamics
    • Innovative designs and future directions in helicopter technology

    14. Case Studies

    • Analysis of real-world incidents and accidents involving helicopters
    • Lessons learned and design improvements
  3. Spaceflight Mechanics
  4. 1. Introduction to Spaceflight Mechanics

    • History and significance of space exploration
    • Overview of space missions and satellite applications

    2. Fundamentals of Astrodynamics

    • Kepler's laws of planetary motion
    • Orbital elements and coordinate systems

    3. Two-Body Problem

    • Derivation of the two-body problem
    • Solution of the two-body equations of motion
    • Graphical representation of orbits

    4. Orbital Maneuvers

    • Hohmann transfer orbits
    • Bi-elliptic transfers
    • Orbital inclination change
    • Orbital rendezvous and docking

    5. Rocket Dynamics and the Rocket Equation

    • Basic principles of rocket propulsion
    • The rocket equation and its implications
    • Multi-stage rockets

    6. Launch Vehicle Dynamics

    • Launch windows and azimuths
    • Gravity turn trajectory
    • Launch vehicle staging and performance

    7. Interplanetary Trajectories

    • Gravity assist maneuvers
    • Patched-conic approximation
    • Transfer orbits and mission planning

    8. Lambert's Problem

    • The geometry of Lambert's problem
    • Solutions and applications in mission design

    9. Satellite Attitude Dynamics

    • Euler angles and attitude representation
    • Torques acting on satellites
    • Stability and control of satellite attitude

    10. Spacecraft Power and Thermal Systems

    • Solar arrays, batteries, and power distribution
    • Thermal challenges in space and thermal protection systems

    11. Space Navigation and Tracking

    • Ground-based and space-based tracking systems
    • Orbit determination techniques
    • Navigation challenges and solutions

    12. Perturbation Effects on Orbits

    • Earth oblateness (J2) effects
    • Atmospheric drag and solar radiation pressure
    • Third-body perturbations

    13. Space Debris and Collision Analysis

    • Origins and challenges of space debris
    • Collision risk assessment and mitigation strategies

    14. Re-entry Dynamics

    • Ballistic and controlled re-entry trajectories
    • Heating effects and re-entry shields

    15. Case Studies and Recent Developments

    • Analysis of historical and recent space missions
    • Innovations in space exploration and satellite applications
  5. Environmental Control Systems
  6. 1. Introduction to ECS

    • Role and importance of ECS
    • Overview of primary ECS components

    2. Physiological Need for ECS

    • Human comfort zones (temperature, pressure, humidity)
    • Effects of high altitude on human physiology
    • Hypoxia, decompression sickness, and barotrauma

    3. Cabin Pressurization and Ventilation

    • Methods of pressurization: turbo-compressors, engine bleed air
    • Pressure regulation: cabin altitude, differential pressure, rate of change
    • Safety aspects: pressure relief valves, dump valves
    • Cabin air distribution and ventilation principles

    4. Cabin Temperature Control

    • Heat sources and sinks in aircraft
    • Air conditioning packs: operation and components
    • Temperature zones and distribution
    • Auxiliary cooling systems

    5. Cabin Humidity Control

    • Humidity's effects on passenger comfort and aircraft structures
    • Humidification and dehumidification methods

    6. Oxygen Systems

    • Need for supplemental oxygen: altitude, emergencies
    • Oxygen generation and storage
    • Oxygen delivery systems: masks, regulators, and distribution

    7. Fire Protection Systems

    • Fire detection: smoke detectors, heat sensors
    • Fire suppression systems: extinguishers, halon, and other agents
    • Fire zones and regulations

    8. Smoke Control and Evacuation

    • Smoke detection and alarms
    • Smoke removal strategies
    • Cabin evacuation procedures and equipment

    9. Aircraft Water and Waste Systems

    • Potable water storage, distribution, and monitoring
    • Waste storage and disposal systems

    10. Thermal and Acoustic Insulation

    • Insulation materials and methods
    • Acoustic challenges in the cabin
    • Noise control strategies

    11. Auxiliary Systems

    • Ground cooling and heating systems
    • Integration with auxiliary power units (APUs)
    • Use of ECS during ground operations

    12. ECS in Special Aircraft

    • Modifications in military aircraft, UAVs, spacecraft
    • High altitude and space environment challenges

    13. System Integration and Management

    • ECS control systems and automation
    • Integration with other aircraft systems: electrical, hydraulic, avionics

    14. Safety, Failures, and Redundancies

    • Common ECS malfunctions and their implications
    • Backup systems and redundancies
    • Crew response to ECS failures

    15. Recent Developments and Innovations

    • Advances in ECS technology
    • Environmental and efficiency considerations
    • Trends in ECS design for modern aircraft
  7. Aircraft Navigation and Instrument Systems
  8. 1. Introduction to Aircraft Instrumentation

    • Evolution of aircraft instruments
    • Classification of aircraft instruments
    • Basic principles of operation

    2. Flight Instruments

    • Altimeters: Pressure, Radio (Radar), and Barometric
    • Airspeed indicators: Indicated Airspeed (IAS), True Airspeed (TAS), and Ground Speed
    • Vertical speed indicators (VSI)
    • Artificial horizon and attitude indicators
    • Directional gyro and turn coordinators

    3. Navigation Instruments

    • Magnetic and gyroscopic compasses
    • Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)
    • VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR)
    • Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
    • Instrument Landing System (ILS)
    • Global Positioning System (GPS) in aviation
    • Inertial Navigation Systems (INS)

    4. Engine Instruments

    • Tachometers
    • Temperature gauges: Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) and Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
    • Fuel quantity and flow indicators
    • Oil pressure and temperature gauges
    • Manifold pressure gauges

    5. Environmental and Auxiliary System Instruments

    • Oxygen quantity and flow indicators
    • Cabin temperature, pressure, and humidity indicators
    • Hydraulic and pneumatic system indicators
    • Landing gear and flap position indicators

    6. Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS)

    • Introduction and evolution of EFIS
    • Primary Flight Display (PFD)
    • Multi-Function Display (MFD)
    • Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS)

    7. Flight Management Systems (FMS)

    • Role and functionalities of FMS
    • Integration with avionics systems
    • Waypoint navigation, flight planning, and fuel optimization

    8. Radar and Weather Navigation Systems

    • Principles of radar operation
    • Weather radar and its significance
    • Collision Avoidance: TCAS and ACAS
    • Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) and Enhanced GPWS (EGPWS)

    9. Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)

    • Introduction to IMA
    • Advantages over federated systems
    • System architecture and interfaces

    10. Human-Machine Interface in Aircraft Instruments

    • Ergonomics of cockpit design
    • Display readability and standards
    • Touchscreen and voice-activated controls

    11. Aircraft Data Buses and Networks

    • ARINC standards: ARINC 429, 664, and others
    • Role and operation of data buses in avionic systems

    12. Testing and Calibration of Instruments

    • Importance of calibration
    • Testing equipment and methodologies
    • Regulatory standards for instrument maintenance

    13. Emerging Trends in Aircraft Navigation and Instrumentation

    • Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS)
    • Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS)
    • NextGen and SESAR initiatives for advanced navigation

    14. Safety, Failures, and Redundancies

    • Common failures in aircraft instruments
    • Backup systems and redundancies
    • Safety regulations and standards

    15. Case Studies

    • Analysis of incidents and accidents related to instrument failures
    • Lessons learned and design improvements
  9. Aerospace Propulsion
  10. 1. Introduction to Aerospace Propulsion

    • Historical evolution of propulsion systems
    • Significance and role of propulsion in aerospace vehicles

    2. Basic Principles of Propulsion

    • Newton's third law and its application
    • Momentum theory
    • Energy and efficiency considerations

    3. Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    • Piston engines: components and operations
    • Turboprop engines: principles and configurations
    • Turbojet, turbofan, and turboshaft engines: principles and configurations

    4. Engine Air Intake and Combustion

    • Subsonic, supersonic, and variable geometry intakes
    • Combustion chambers: annular, can, and can-annular
    • Fuels and combustion performance

    5. Nozzles and Exhaust Systems

    • Subsonic and supersonic nozzles
    • Ejectors, afterburners, and thrust reversers

    6. Jet Engine Performance and Analysis

    • Thrust, efficiency, and specific fuel consumption
    • Engine operating envelope
    • Off-design performance

    7. Propellers and Fans

    • Propeller theory and aerodynamics
    • Propeller types: fixed pitch, variable pitch, and contrarotating
    • Fan performance in turbofan engines

    8. Rocket Propulsion

    • Basic rocket equations and performance metrics
    • Types of rocket engines: liquid, solid, hybrid
    • Rocket propellants: characteristics and selection

    9. Thermodynamics of Propulsion Systems

    • Brayton and Rankine cycles
    • Real and ideal cycle analysis
    • Component efficiencies and performance mapping

    10. Environmental Considerations

    • Engine emissions and their impact
    • Noise generation and mitigation strategies

    11. Ramjets, Scramjets, and Pulsejets

    • Operation principles
    • Design and performance considerations
    • Applications and limitations

    12. Electric and Hybrid Propulsion

    • Basic principles of electric propulsion
    • Ion thrusters, Hall effect thrusters
    • Hybrid propulsion systems for aircraft

    13. Advanced Propulsion Concepts

    • Nuclear propulsion
    • Laser and microwave propulsion
    • Solar sails and photon propulsion

    14. Propulsion System Integration

    • Engine placement considerations
    • Thermal and structural challenges
    • Aerodynamic integration

    15. Testing and Certification of Propulsion Systems

    • Ground and flight testing methodologies
    • Regulatory standards and certification processes
  11. Project Work/Internship
  12. 1. Orientation and Objectives

    • Introduction to the purpose and importance of internships and project work.
    • Understanding the industry's expectations and the skills to be developed.

    2. Selection Process

    • Identifying potential industries or research institutions for internship.
    • Proposal submission, which includes objectives, methodology, expected outcomes, and relevance to aeronautical engineering.
    • Ethics, confidentiality, and professional conduct.

    3. Project Planning and Management

    • Setting goals and milestones.
    • Understanding resource management: time, materials, and human resources.
    • Documentation standards and practices.

    4. Hands-on Experience

    • Engaging in practical tasks assigned by the hosting organization.
    • Operating industry-standard tools, machinery, software, or simulations as relevant to the task.
    • Observing and learning from professionals in the industry.

    5. Research and Development (if part of the internship)

    • Conducting experiments, simulations, or studies as part of a larger project.
    • Data collection, analysis, and interpretation.
    • Reporting findings and drawing conclusions.

    6. Professional Development

    • Attending seminars, workshops, or training sessions provided by the organization.
    • Networking with professionals and understanding different roles and career paths in aeronautical engineering.

    7. Interim Reporting

    • Regular updates on progress, challenges faced, and solutions implemented.
    • Feedback sessions with faculty advisors and industry mentors.

    8. Safety and Regulations

    • Comprehending safety protocols, industry standards, and regulations pertinent to tasks being performed.
    • Adhering to organizational guidelines and protocols.

    9. Final Presentation and Report Submission

    • Compiling experiences, lessons learned, and project outcomes in a comprehensive report.
    • Presenting findings to faculty members, peers, and (potentially) industry representatives.
    • Receiving feedback and evaluations based on performance, deliverables, and overall learning during the internship.

    10. Reflection and Future Planning

    • Reflecting on personal and professional growth during the internship.
    • Identifying strengths, areas of interest, and areas for further development.
    • Planning for future coursework, projects, or career paths based on internship experiences.

    11. Evaluation

    • Evaluation criteria might include: the quality of work, technical knowledge, problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, professionalism, report quality, and presentation skills.

Semester 8:

  1. Rockets and Missiles
  2. 1. Introduction

    • Historical overview of rocket and missile development.
    • Definitions and classification of rockets and missiles.

    2. Basic Principles of Rocketry

    • Newton’s Third Law of Motion and its relevance to rocketry.
    • Basics of rocket propulsion and flight.

    3. Rocket Propulsion Systems

    • Classification: Liquid propellant, solid propellant, hybrid propellant, and nuclear rockets.
    • Components of a rocket propulsion system.
    • Operating principles of various propulsion systems.

    4. Missile Aerodynamics

    • Basic aerodynamics relevant to missiles.
    • Stability, control, and drag factors in missile design.
    • High angle of attack aerodynamics and control surfaces.

    5. Guidance and Control Systems

    • Basics of missile guidance systems: command, homing, and inertial.
    • Components: gyroscopes, accelerometers, radars, and seekers.
    • Control methods and systems.

    6. Missile Propulsion

    • Solid and liquid propellant missile engines.
    • Thrust control methods.
    • Sizing of missile propulsion systems.

    7. Flight Dynamics

    • Missile kinematics.
    • Trajectory analysis and key parameters.
    • Staging and its relevance.

    8. Warheads and Payloads

    • Types of warheads: fragmentation, penetration, and nuclear.
    • Fuzing mechanisms.
    • Payload considerations for space rockets.

    9. Thermal Considerations

    • Heating effects during missile flight.
    • Thermal protection systems.
    • Heat transfer and ablation.

    10. Materials and Structures

    • Structural design considerations for rockets and missiles.
    • Materials used in the construction of rockets and missiles.
    • Structural analysis and optimization.

    11. Missile Testing and Launch Protocols

    • Ground and flight testing.
    • Safety considerations during testing.
    • Launch vehicles and platforms.

    12. Advanced Topics

    • Air-to-air, air-to-ground, and surface-to-surface missiles.
    • Anti-satellite weapons and space warfare.
    • Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and their strategic implications.

    13. Current Trends and Future Prospects

    • Emerging technologies in rockets and missiles.
    • Role of AI and machine learning in missile technology.
    • Reusable rockets and space exploration.

    14. Environmental and Ethical Considerations

    • Environmental impact of rocket launches.
    • Ethical implications of missile warfare.
    • Space debris and its management.
  3. Air Traffic Control and Planning
  4. 1. Introduction

    • Overview of air traffic control and its significance.
    • Historical development of air traffic management.
    • Global aviation regulatory bodies (ICAO, FAA, EASA, etc.).

    2. Airspace Structure

    • Classification of airspace: controlled, uncontrolled, special use.
    • Vertical and horizontal dimensions.
    • Flight Information Regions (FIRs).

    3. ATC Systems and Equipment

    • Radar systems: primary, secondary, and ADS-B.
    • Communication systems: VHF, UHF, satellite communications.
    • Navigation aids: VOR, ILS, DME, GNSS.

    4. ATC Procedures

    • Air traffic services: area control, approach control, tower control.
    • Flight planning and clearance.
    • Separation standards and methods: horizontal, vertical, and time-based.

    5. Human Factors in ATC

    • Human performance and limitations in ATC.
    • Human-machine interface and ergonomics.
    • Stress, fatigue, and workload management.

    6. Air Traffic Flow Management

    • Basics of air traffic flow and demand.
    • Ground delay programs and slot allocation.
    • Route planning and optimization.

    7. Airport Planning

    • Types of airports and their classification.
    • Airport master planning.
    • Runway, taxiway, and terminal design considerations.

    8. Safety and Emergency Procedures

    • Safety management systems (SMS) in ATC.
    • Conflict detection and resolution.
    • Emergency scenarios and response procedures.

    9. Future Trends in ATC

    • NextGen and SESAR initiatives.
    • 4D trajectory-based operations.
    • Remote and digital air traffic control towers.

    10. Environmental Considerations

    • Noise abatement procedures.
    • Emission control and green flight operations.
    • Sustainable aviation and future challenges.

    11. ATC Simulation and Training

    • ATC simulation tools and technologies.
    • Training methodologies and certification.
    • Continuous professional development and skill enhancement.

    12. Case Studies

    • Notable air traffic incidents and lessons learned.
    • Best practices and innovations in global air traffic management.
    • Analysis of busy airspace regions and their challenges.

    13. International Coordination

    • ICAO's role in global ATC standards and coordination.
    • Cross-border air traffic management.
    • Interoperability of ATC systems across regions.

    14. Challenges in ATC

    • Increasing air traffic and congestion.
    • Technological challenges and upgrades.
    • Socio-economic and political influences on ATC.

    15. Research and Development in ATC

    • Ongoing research topics in air traffic management.
    • The role of AI and machine learning in future ATC systems.
    • Automation and its implications on human controllers.
  5. Computational Structural Analysis
  6. 1. Introduction

    • Overview of computational methods in structural analysis.
    • Role of computational tools in aerospace engineering.
    • Comparison of analytical, experimental, and computational methods.

    2. Matrix Methods of Analysis

    • Introduction to matrix algebra.
    • Flexibility and stiffness methods.
    • Matrix formulation of trusses, beams, and frames.

    3. Basics of Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

    • Introduction to the finite element method.
    • Discretization and element types: 1D, 2D, and 3D.
    • Shape functions and interpolation.

    4. Structural Modeling

    • Creation of geometry and mesh generation.
    • Selection of element types: linear, quadratic, etc.
    • Mesh refinement and its significance.

    5. Static Analysis

    • Formulation of stiffness matrix and load vectors.
    • Boundary conditions and constraints.
    • Solution methods: Direct solvers and iterative methods.

    6. Dynamic Analysis

    • Formulation for dynamic problems.
    • Modal analysis and extraction of natural frequencies.
    • Time-domain and frequency-domain analysis.

    7. Thermal Analysis

    • Basic principles of thermal analysis in structures.
    • Coupled thermo-mechanical analysis.
    • Thermal stresses and deformations.

    8. Aeroelasticity and Computational Methods

    • Introduction to aeroelastic phenomena: flutter, divergence, etc.
    • Computational tools for aeroelastic analysis.
    • Case studies of aeroelastic problems.

    9. Non-linear Analysis

    • Introduction to non-linearities in structures: material, geometric, and boundary non-linearities.
    • Solution methods for non-linear problems.
    • Applications in aerospace structures.

    10. Optimization Techniques

    • Introduction to structural optimization.
    • Design variables, constraints, and objective functions.
    • Sensitivity analysis and optimization algorithms.

    11. Advanced Topics in FEA

    • Multi-physics problems and coupled-field analysis.
    • Contact problems in aerospace structures.
    • Fracture mechanics and computational methods.

    12. Software and Tools

    • Overview of popular commercial FEA software: ANSYS, Abaqus, Nastran, etc.
    • Hands-on sessions and mini-projects.
    • Pre-processing, solution, and post-processing stages.

    13. Validation and Verification

    • Importance of model validation.
    • Comparison with experimental and analytical results.
    • Uncertainties and errors in computational analysis.

    14. Recent Trends in Computational Structural Analysis

    • Cloud-based computational tools.
    • Role of AI and machine learning in structural analysis.
    • High-performance computing in aerospace applications.

    15. Case Studies

    • Analysis of real-world aerospace structures using computational methods.
    • Challenges encountered and solutions developed.
    • Discussion of results and implications.
  7. Elective (based on the university, this could be anything from Advanced Aerodynamics to Modern Control Theory)
  8. 1. Introduction

    • Review of basic aerodynamic principles.
    • Importance of advanced concepts in modern aerospace applications.

    2. High Angle of Attack Aerodynamics

    • Flow separation and stall.
    • Post-stall behavior and vortex dynamics.

    3. Transonic and Supersonic Flows

    • Shock waves and expansion waves.
    • Area rule and wave drag reduction techniques.

    4. Hypersonic Aerodynamics

    • Shock layer theory.
    • Thermal and chemical effects at high speeds.

    5. Boundary Layer Theory

    • Laminar, transitional, and turbulent flows.
    • Boundary layer control and transition prediction.

    6. Aeroacoustics

    • Noise generation mechanisms.
    • Acoustic wave propagation and noise mitigation techniques.

    7. Computational Aerodynamics

    • Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications in aerodynamics.
    • Meshing techniques and turbulence modeling.

    8. Experimental Methods

    • Wind tunnel testing techniques.
    • Modern experimental tools and diagnostics.

    9. Aerodynamic Optimization

    • Shape optimization for drag reduction.
    • Multi-objective optimization techniques.

    10. Flow Control Techniques

    • Active and passive flow control methods.
    • Recent advancements in adaptive wing technologies.

    Modern Control Theory

    1. Introduction

    • Overview of classical control theory.
    • Need for modern control techniques in aerospace systems.

    2. State Space Representation

    • State variables and state space formulation.
    • Transition matrix and solution to state equations.

    3. Controllability and Observability

    • Concepts of controllability and observability.
    • Tests for system controllability and observability.

    4. Stability Analysis

    • Lyapunov stability.
    • Direct and indirect methods of Lyapunov for system stability.

    5. Modern Control Design Techniques

    • Pole placement and state feedback control.
    • Observer design and state estimation.

    6. Optimal Control

    • Performance indices and optimization criteria.
    • Calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle.

    7. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR)

    • Formulation of the LQR problem.
    • Solution and properties of LQR.

    8. Kalman Filter

    • Basics of filtering and estimation.
    • Kalman filter derivation and applications in aerospace systems.

    9. Robust Control

    • Uncertainties in aerospace systems.
    • H-infinity methods and robustness margins.

    10. Model Predictive Control (MPC)

    • Predictive modeling and horizon-based control.
    • Applications of MPC in aerospace guidance and navigation.
  9. Final Project/Thesis
  10. 1. Project Identification and Selection

    • Identification of a topic or problem of relevance in aeronautical engineering.
    • Preliminary literature review.
    • Establishment of objectives and scope of the project.

    2. Proposal Submission

    • Introduction to the problem or topic.
    • Objectives and significance.
    • Preliminary methodology.
    • Expected outcomes.
    • Timeline.

    3. Literature Review

    • Comprehensive study of existing literature.
    • Identification of gaps in current knowledge.
    • Finalization of methodologies based on the literature review.

    4. Methodology

    • Development or selection of suitable methods and techniques.
    • Detailed planning of experiments, simulations, or analytical approaches.
    • Equipment, software, and tools selection.

    5. Data Collection

    • Experimental setups and measurements.
    • Simulations and computational studies.
    • Field studies, if applicable.

    6. Data Analysis

    • Application of statistical or computational tools.
    • Interpretation of results.
    • Comparative studies with existing solutions or literature.

    7. Design (if applicable)

    • Conceptual design based on the problem identified.
    • Detailed design using CAD or other design tools.
    • Prototype development and testing.

    8. Discussion

    • Evaluation of results against objectives.
    • Integration of results with existing knowledge.
    • Implications of findings.

    9. Conclusion and Recommendations

    • Summarization of work.
    • Achievements against objectives.
    • Future scope and recommendations.

    10. Report Writing and Submission

    • Structuring and drafting of the project report.
    • Including all relevant sections: Introduction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results, Discussion, Conclusion.
    • Adherence to guidelines or templates provided by the university.

    11. Presentation and Defense

    • Oral presentation of the project in front of a panel.
    • Demonstrations if applicable (for design or product-based projects).
    • Defense of methodology and findings during questioning.

    12. Evaluation

    • Evaluation by faculty or external experts.
    • Consideration of originality, methodology, quality of analysis, relevance, and presentation skills.
    • Feedback and grading

B Tech / BE Aeronautical Engineering Eligibility Criteria

An Aspiring candidate for the Aeronautical Engineering Course should fully satisfy the eligibility criteria. The eligibility criteria for aeronautical engineering can be found below:-

  • The Minimum Eligibility Criteria for pursuing Bachelor’s in Aeronautical Engineering course must be passed or appearing class 12th with Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics(PCM) or Physics, Chemistry and Biology (PCB).
  • Engineering Diploma of 3 years in any stream.
  • Students must have qualified their 12th & Diploma with more than or equivalent to 45% marks, with 5% relaxation to the reserved categories (SC/ST) in some colleges.
  • To get admission to the top aeronautical engineering colleges of India, one could go for AME CET exam.

Entrance Exam for Aeronautical Engineering

AME CET 2024 stands for Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Common Entrance Test for the students of Aeronautical Engineering in India. As a bridge to the nation's most reputable institutes and universities sanctioned by the AICTE, Government of India. Candidates can get up to 100% scholarship by this examination. 

Key Highlights:

  • Entrance Examination: AME CET 2024

    • National level common entrance test for those students for a B Tech / BE degree in Aeronautical Engineering and other aviation courses.
  • Affiliation & Approval:

    • Admissions facilitated through AME CET are to leading institutes and universities that have the approval from AICTE, Government of India.
  • Admission Criteria:

    • Prospective students' fate is determined by their All India Rank (AIR) in the AME CET 2024.
    • Based on the AIR, students have to join admission counseling conducted by AME CET.
    • Post counseling, they get the opportunity to confirm their admissions to AICTE-approved Aeronautical engineering institutions and universities.
    • On the basis of AIR(All India Rank) of AME CET 2024 students will get up to 100% scholarship.
  • Examination Structure:

    • The AME CET question paper adheres to an objective pattern.
    • Candidates have both option Hindi & English mediums.
    • The examination contains 90 questions in total.
    • Each question is allocated a value of 4 marks.

Aeronautical Engineering Admission Process

AME CET entrance exam, conducted all across India, is the gateway for students aiming to pursue a B.Tech or B.E degree in Aeronautical Engineering. So, when you score high in AME CET 2024, top aeronautical engineering colleges and universities will welcome you with open arms. The test consists of 90 questions, and it's up to you whether you want to answer them in Hindi or English. Plus, the objective format makes it clear-cut: for each right answer, you get 4 marks.

But before you dive into preparations, you'll need to apply for AME CET 2024. The application process is simple and mostly online. From filling out personal details to paying a fee, it's designed to be user-friendly.

B Tech / BE Aeronautical Engineering course admission process comprises of few steps which are as follows:-

How to Apply:

  • Official Portal: Register by the official AME CET website Click here to apply Click here
  • Registration: Fill out the registration form 1st September 2023
  • Login Credentials: Upon successful registration, you'll receive login credentials.
  • Application Form: Use your credentials to log in and access the application form.
  • Document Upload: Keep scanned copies of your recent photograph, signature, and necessary academic documents ready for upload.
  • Fees Payment: Complete the process by paying the examination fee through the available online payment methods.
  • Final Submission: Thoroughly review all entered details and submit the form.
  • Acknowledgment: Post submission, you'll receive a confirmation message or email. Ensure to save or print it for future reference.

Aeronautical Engineering Course Fees

Aeronautical Engineering course fee structure depends upon the curriculum of the institutions. After clearing the AME CET exam, students can avail admission in one of the top institutes in India which are approved by AICTE. Admission will be offered to the students based on their All India Rank (AIR).

Aeronautical Engineer course fee structure varies from colleges to colleges. The fees can be paid to the institute semester wise. The exact Aeronautical Course fees details can be seen on the official website of the aeronautical engineering colleges. There are Education Loan facilities available for the students in many banks. The fees will be different for Indian and NRI students and can be relatively high for the NRI students.

Aeronautical Engineering Colleges

There are many Colleges/Universities that are offering Aeronautical Engineering courses. Admission to Aeronautical Engineering Universities/ Institutes can be through AME CET exam, the choice of the aeronautical engineering colleges will be given to the students based upon their All India Rank (AIR). One must select the colleges that are topmost colleges in terms of education along with those that are best in terms of placement, infrastructure.

All the Aeronautical Engineering colleges in which students get admission will be approved by AICTE, Govt. of India. To know more about the Aeronautical engineering colleges in India click here.

Aeronautical Engineering Scope

The Aeronautical Engineering scope in India is growing in the aviation sector and putting their step towards manufacturing business. It will raise the demand of Aeronautical Engineers. Aeronautical Engineering scope is in demand both in India as well as abroad. They are required in Airline Services as well as aircraft-manufacturing units in private and public sectors.

After completion of the course, the Aeronautical Engineers at the very initial level are hired as Junior Engineers or graduate engineer trainees and further on completion of the trainee period they are placed under assistant category. Based on their performance in the organizations, they are promoted to the suitable designation and sometimes they have to clear departmental exams for the further promotions.

After the completion of the course an aeronautical engineer can have ‘n’ no. of scope in the following fields:-

  • Airlines: - Airlines company that provides air transport which helps passengers to travel. The role of the aeronautical engineer is that they use their technical knowledge to improve flight safety and fuel efficiency, reduce costs and address the environmental impact of air travel.
  • Aircraft Manufacturing Companies: - As the Aeronautics fields are related to the manufacturing of the aircraft's, they play an important role in these organizations.
  • Aircraft Part Manufacturing Companies: - This company builds the components of an aircraft to manufacture those components Aeronautical Engineers are appointed.
  • Civil Defence Forces: - In defence, Aeronautical Engineering career can be in designing, manufacturing, and testing military weapons, aircraft, and missiles.
  • Research Organizations:- Aeronautical Engineers build their career in research organizations such as ISRO, NASA, DRDO, etc.
  • Maintenance, Repair and Overhauls (MRO) Industries: - They use their technicality to improve the specialized function performed in maintenance actions on aircraft and their components.

Aeronautical Engineering Job Opportunities

Engineering is the best graduation in the world. When we talk about Aeronautical Engineering this is the best combination in the present growing market scenario. Aeronautical Engineers are in global demand means not only India the whole world requires Aeronautical Engineers to fulfill their aeronautical engineer demands. That's why there are more than 50% of engineers belong to India in every international organization.

Aeronautical Engineering is a broad stream in which they learn all about the research, design & development of an aircraft and its technologies. They can take expertise in helicopters, airplanes, rockets, jets, planes, drones, remotely piloted aircraft and rotorcraft, spacecraft, including launch vehicles and satellites, and military missiles. On the basis of that strong background, they are eligible to work in every aviation organization as Government, Research, Defence, Manufacturing, Maintenance, Education, etc. Even an aeronautical engineer can join UPSE and can become Aeronautical Officer.

The fields are given blow where an aeronautical Engineer can work. : -

  • Government Defence & Research Agencies
    • DRDO
      • Aeronautical Development Agency
    • ISRO
    • HAL
  • Armed Forces
    • Army
    • Indian Air Force
    • Navy
  • Civil Aviation Ministry/Department/Authority
    • Ministry of Civil Aviation
    • DGCA
    • AIA
  • Ministry of Defence
  • Aviation industry
    • Aircraft manufacturing organizations
    • Drone manufacturing organisation
    • Airline companies
    • MRO organizations
    • Space programmes
    • Aircraft part manufacturing organizations
  • Education Sector
    • Indian education Regulatory bodies
    • Universities
    • Engineering institutes
    • Polytechnic colleges
    • Flying clubs
    • Drown flying tanning institutes

There are so many fields where an aeronautical engineer can make their career. A very few top organizations are given here: -

Aeronautical Engineer Job Profile

Aeronautical Engineer job profile is not only in the aviation industry, but also in the Defense sector like Air Force. They can apply for the scientific and technological principles to research, construct, design, and test the performance of the civil and military weapons, aircraft, and missiles. Maintenance of these also comes under the Aeronautical Engineer job profile.

Aeronautical Engineer uses Computer Software like Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to develop the aircraft or related avionics. These branches also required specialization in Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and similar fields.

The commonly offered Aeronautical Engineering job profiles are as follows:-

  • Aircraft Engineers: - Aircraft Engineers are involved in the application of scientific and technological principles to research, development, and design of aircraft and their components.
  • Thermal Design Engineer: -The job role of the thermal design systems and processes to convert generated energy from various thermal sources into chemical, mechanical or electrical energy.
  • Aircraft Production Manager: - Aircraft Production Manager has to keep an eye on the production in terms of quality, pricing, market analysis.
  • Aerospace Design Checker: -Aerospace Design Checker’s role is to check whether the design of an aircraft and its components.
  • Aircraft Maintenance Technician (AMT): Ensures the aircraft complies with all safety procedures and regulations.
  • Aircraft Performance Engineer: Analyzes how an aircraft performs under various conditions and makes recommendations for improvements.
  • Navigation Engineer: Focuses on the systems that control an aircraft's route and positioning.
  • Flight Instrument Engineer: Designs and maintains the instruments that pilots use to fly planes safely.
  • Safety Systems Engineer: Specializes in designing and maintaining systems that ensure the safety of the aircraft and its passengers.
  • Air Traffic Controller: Manages aircraft movement on the ground and in the air, ensuring safe takeoffs, landings, and in-flight routes.
  • Technical Sales Engineer: Combines technical knowledge with sales skills to offer the right aviation products to clients.
  • Aircraft Interior Designer: Specializes in the design and layout of aircraft interiors, focusing on both aesthetics and functionality.
  • Spacecraft Designer: Focuses on vehicles designed for outer space operations.
  • Satellite Design Engineer: Designs and develops satellites for various purposes, such as communication, research, or surveillance.
  • Quality Control Engineer: Ensures all aerospace products and services meet the required quality standards.
  • Aircraft Electrician: Focuses on the electrical systems of aircraft, ensuring they work efficiently and safely.
  • Rotorcraft Engineer: Specializes in helicopters and other aircraft that use rotors for flight.
  • Wind Tunnel Engineer: Works with wind tunnel tests to study aerodynamic properties of various objects.
  • Spacecraft Propulsion Engineer: Designs and tests propulsion systems for spacecraft.
  • Flight Simulator Engineer: Designs and maintains flight simulators used for training and research.
  • Flight Scheduler: Responsible for coordinating and scheduling aircraft flights.
  • Drone Engineer: Designs and develops drones for various applications, from delivery to surveillance.
  • Flight Operations Coordinator: Manages various aspects of flight operations, including crew scheduling, aircraft maintenance, and coordination with other departments.
  • Aviation Consultant: Offers expert advice on various aspects of the aviation industry, such as compliance, operations, or safety.

Aeronautical Engineer’s Roles and Responsibilities

An Aeronautical Engineer has is responsible for many things and they play a vital role in the aviation sector. Aeronautical Engineer’s roles and responsibilities are mentioned below to provide an overview for the course: -

There is an important role Aeronautical Engineer plays in the aviation industry to ensure the design, development, testing, and production of aircraft. They take care of the safety and performance standards of aircraft.

Here we can see the typical roles and responsibilities of an Aeronautical Engineer:

Aircraft Design:

  • Aeronautical Engineers are responsible for Developing new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and spacecraft.
  • They design aircraft and propulsion systems using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Aeronautical Engineers ensure the design meets engineering principles, customer requirements, and environmental challenges.

Research & Development:

  •  Aeronautical engineers conduct research to improve flight safety, fuel efficiency, speed, and weight capacity.
  • They Explore and implement new materials and methods to make flying more sustainable.

Aircraft Testing:

  • Aeronautical Engineers watch and make sure that the planes are put together right and the engines and tools are added correctly.
  • They participate in flight-test programs to measure take-off distances, rate of climb, stall speeds, maneuverability, and other flight qualities of aircraft.
  • They analyze flight data to figure out if designs meet requirements and will ensure safe and efficient operation.

Aircraft Maintenance:

  • Aeronautical Engineers ensure that the aircraft comply with all regulations and safety requirements.
  • They inspect aircraft regularly to check for any issues or malfunctions in aircraft.
  • They take care of the repair or replacement of malfunctioning parts as needed in aircraft.

Validation & Verification:

  • The Aeronautical Engineer confirms that the aircraft's systems operate according to the required specifications or not.
  • They validate the methodologies, components, and manufacturing processes of an aircraft.

Systems Integration:

  • The Aeronautical Engineer ensures that individual components and systems in an aircraft function seamlessly together.

Quality Assurance of Aircraft:

  • The Aeronautical Engineer ensures all processes, methods, and components meet regulatory and organizational standards of an aircraft.
  • They check for defects in aircraft designs and systems, recommending changes as necessary in aircraft.


  • The Aeronautical Engineer offers expert advice to organizations or manufacturers on design, safety, and efficiency.
  • They help with problem-solving and offer solutions for design or operational challenges.

Project Management:

  • The Aeronautical Engineer oversees projects, ensuring they are completed on time and within budget.
  • They coordinate with multiple teams and stakeholders to ensure the successful completion of projects.

Continuous Learning:

  • The Aeronautical Engineer stays updated with the latest developments in aerospace technology, materials, and methods.
  • They attend conferences, workshops, and training sessions to improve their skills and knowledge.

Safety and Compliance:

  • The Aeronautical Engineer ensures that all processes, designs, and tests adhere to national and international safety standards and regulations.


  • The Aeronautical Engineer works closely with other engineers and professionals such as mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, and computer specialists.
  • An Aeronautical Engineer's primary responsibility is to ensure the safe, efficient, and innovative development and operation of aircraft systems. They balance creativity and analytical skills to push the boundaries of flight while keeping paramount the safety of passengers and crew.

Aeronautical Engineer Salary

In term of career and placement Aeronautical Engineering is one of the best streams in engineering in India & Abroad. They are usually work on aircrafts as Aeronautical Engineer.

The salary differs on the basis of the organization, department and job profile. The average starting salary of an Aeronautical Engineer is INR 6 Lakhs to 10 Lakhs per annum.

In India they work in Government research organization as follows

  • ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization)
  • DRDO (Defence and Research Department Organization)
  • HAL (Hindustan Aeronautics Limited)

Also, some government departments

  • Civil Aviation Department
  • DGCA (Directorate General of Civil Aviation)
  • Ministry of Civil Aviation

In government sector like DRDO, ISRO they can get Class-I job as scientist. They get average 10 Lacs package and many facilities also.

In the aviation department the industry demand also increases the salary package of Aeronautical Engineer. At present Indian is the fastest growing market in the world and we also manufacturing aircrafts in India so demand of Aeronautical engineer is very high.

Aeronautical Engineer salary package will depend upon the academic excellence and skill set of the students. The skillset includes analytic skills, business skills, critical thinking skills, math skills, problem-solving skills, and writing skills. The average Aeronautical Engineering salary in this field ranges from INR 6 to 10 lakhs per annum as per the report on payscale. The salary depends on the academic excellence and skill set of the students.

Abroad salaries can even be more than in India for Aeronautical Engineers. The average Aeronautical Engineering salary internationally will be $ 82724 per annum according to the report at the pay scale.

The Increment or hike in salary depends upon the employer, current position, and one’s performance in an organization. The salary in the government and private sectors are good. Based on the student choice and skill they can choose the government and private sectors.

Higher Studies After Aeronautical Engineering

Graduation in Aeronautical Engineering is the sufficient study to work in aviation industry as Aeronautical Engineer. They can join as Scientist in many research organizations on the bases of Btech in Aeronautical Engineer.

Still education is never ending process so there is very good scope for higher studies in India and abroad after Aeronautical Engineering.

After completing B.Tech/BE in Aeronautical engineering, they can go for following specialization in the following fields-

  • M.Sc in Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • M.Sc in Aeronautics
  • M.Sc in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
  • M.Sc Advanced Aeronautical Engineering
  • M.Eng (Honours) Aeronautical Engineering
  • M.Sc Advanced Computational Methods for Aeronautics
  • M.Eng Aerospace Science and Engineering

After pursuing higher qualifications in any of the above specializations, students can pursue the doctorate (Ph D) from any institution or universites.

These are following fields for doctorate

  • PhD in Aeronautics
  • PhD in Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • PhD in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
  • PhD in Aerospace Science and Engineering


The salary differs on the basis of the firm, and the skills of the candidate. The average salary of an Aeronautical Engineer is INR 6 Lakhs to 8 Lakhs per annum.

Yes, Aeronautical Engineering has an excellent and amazing career in the future because the aviation sector is the fastest growing sector in the world. India became the third fastest aviation sector after the US and China. After completing Aeronautical Engineering, one can work with the airlines, civil defence forces, MRO and many more.

Aeronautical Engineering is a 4-year engineering course in which 8 semesters are involved in it. The fees of Aeronautical Engineering is INR 50,000 to 1,50,000 per semester which means 4 to 12 lakhs. If the applicant wants to take an education loan, then colleges also provide education loans too.

The field of Aeronautical Engineering can be termed hard but if the candidate is working hard and studying with thoroughness, he/ she can qualify the same with flying colors.

Aeronautical engineering is a 4-year course that includes 8 semesters. During these 8 semesters, the candidates will learn academic and theoretical knowledge about the designing, manufacturing, and testing of the aircraft.

The following are the best colleges for Aeronautical Engineering:-

  • Silver Oak College of Engineering and Technology, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
  • Puran Murti Campus, Sonipat, Delhi NCR
  • School of Aeronautics, Neemrana (Rajasthan)
  • KCG College of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  • MATS University, Raipur
  • Noorul Islam University, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu
  • Adhiyamann College of Engineering, Hosur, Tamil Nadu
  • Bhubaneshwar Engineering College, Odisha
  • Er Perumal Manimekalai College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu

Yes, an Aeronautical Engineer can become a pilot. However, if you want to fly the plane as a hobby, then you have to get a private Pilot License. Furthermore, to become a pilot, you have to take flying lessons from the flying school.

The duration of the course Aeronautical Engineering is 4 year which means 8 semesters are involved. Aeronautical Engineering is approved by the All India Council For Technical Education (AICTE). One semester out of the eight have practical training in the live environment and other semesters have academic sessions. In each academic session, there are approximately 6- 7 Aeronautical courses of Engineering subjects in each semester, which the student has to qualify to attain the B. Tech (Aeronautical Engineering) Degree.

In Aeronautical Engineering, we study many subjects related to the researching, designing, constructing, testing and manufacturing of the aircraft within earth’s atmosphere. Some of the core subjects that we study in Aeronautical Engineering are given below :-

  • Material Science
  • Propulsion
  • Airframe Stress Analyzing and Sizing
  • Compressible fluid flow
  • Fluid dynamics
  • Automatic control and guidance
  • Aircraft performance
  • Aircraft structures
  • And many more interesting subjects.

Aircraft Maintenance Engineering keeps the aircraft in the flying condition. An Aircraft Maintenance Engineer repair and maintenance of an Aircraft.

An Aeronautical Engineering course deals with the design development, production of aircraft, testing of aircraft within the earth’s atmosphere. Aeronautical Engineers have job opportunities in national and international, public and private Airlines, manufacturing.

One can have various job scopes after qualifying Aeronautical Engineering. The candidate can work as a Racing Car Designer, Flight Mechanics Engineer, Graduate Engineer Trainee, Assistant Aircraft Engineer, Aircraft Production Engineer, Assistant Technical Officers, etc.

Yes. There are various entrance exams for Aeronautical Engineering. However, one who wishes to get admission to the topmost institute in India should attempt the AME CET 2024. Through this examination, not only one will be able to get admission to one of the most renowned institutes but also a scholarship of up to 100% on the basis of his/ her All India Rank (AIR).

Females can excel in any field. Furthermore, Aeronautical Engineering is an amazing career for females.

The job of an Aeronautical Engineer is to manufacture all the electrical, electronic, and mechanical parts of the aircraft. Their duties also include designing propulsion systems and aircraft.

Yes. One can pursue the course of Aeronautical Engineering after completing his/ her 12th only if he/ she possesses the mandatory eligibility criteria. To study the course of Aeronautical Engineering, one should have pursued his/ her 12th with Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics or Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.

To join the course of Aeronautical Engineering, one has to make sure that he/ she has completed his/ her 12th with PCM or PCB. After that, one can appear for an Entrance exam. Furthermore, so as to get admission to one of the topmost institutes in India, one should attempt the AME CET examination.

The subjects that are needed for Aeronautical Engineering are Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics or Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. If you want to pursue the course of Aeronautical Engineering, then you have to make sure that you have studied the above-mentioned subjects in your 12th.

The Aeronautical Engineers can work in the following sectors:-

  • Airlines
  • Corporations
  • Flying Clubs.
  • Private Air Lines.
  • Government-Owned Air Services
  • Aircrafts Manufactures
  • Defense Research and Development Organizations (DRDO)
  • Aeronautical Laboratories
  • Aeronautical Development Establishments
  • Department of Civil Aviation
  • Defense Services
  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO)

Aeronautical Engineering is a BE/ B.Tech 4 year degree that trains the candidate about the maintenance of the designing, manufacturing, and testing of the aircraft.

Both are good at their own places but if we talk from a career perspective, then Aeronautical Engineering is better because it has more scope in the future. In the course of Aeronautical Engineering, one can have various career opportunities.

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